Matches made from wood sticks (sticks) with a head, which is ignited by friction on the pasting (grater). This grater is applied on the side of a matchbox.
As raw materials for the manufacture of match wood used aspen, at least - lime. For this round purified from the bark of turbaco special knife spiral is removed tape - veneer, which is then placed in layers and cut to match the strips.
When burning match is necessary, first, to get NetBEUI ember from the straw, and secondly, to keep it molten slag from the burned head to protect the user from burns service, if it gets molten slag. In addition, the glimmer from the straw, of course, is a fire hazard. To avoid corruption of the straw and secure it slag from the head, the strips impregnated with substances forming on its surface by burning the film. This film stops the combustion of coal. This film reinforces the slag from the head. As proteoclastic substances use phosphoric acid and its salt is diammonium phosphate (NH4)2HPO4
to provide for the transition of the flame from the head to the strips, the latter about head impregnated with molten paraffin. Match with deparaffinizing strips off almost immediately after the combustion head. Paraffin as easily ignited by burning heads and gives a bright flame.
With the invention of the Swedish match used a large number of recipes fiery mass, from which are made the heads of the matches. They are complex multicomponent systems. These include:
- oxidants (bertoletova salt KClO3, bichromate of potash, K2Cr2O7, pyrolusite MnO2), providing the oxygen necessary for combustion;
- flammable substances (sulphur, animal and vegetable glues, the sulfide of phosphorus P4S3);
- fillers are substances that prevent explosive combustion head (crushed glass, oxide iron (III) Fe2O3);
- adhesives (glues), which are both flammable;
- stabilizers acidity (zinc oxide ZnO, chalk CaCO3 and others); they are necessary because the acidity of the incendiary mass is undesirable because it contributes to the flow side of chemical processes;
- substances, coloring match the weight in a certain color (organic and inorganic dyes).
Pyrolusite MnO2 plays a dual role: catalyst decomposition bertoletova salt and source of oxygen. Oxide iron (III) Fe2O3 performs two functions. It is a mineral paint (rust color) and reduces the rate of combustion of the mass, making the combustion more relaxed.
The temperature of the burning match heads reaches 1500°C, and the temperature of ignition is in the range of 180-200°C.
Phosphate (MDF) mass, which is applied on the lateral outer side of a matchbox, is multicomponent. The composition of the most common grating mass includes:
- red phosphorus,
- sulphide of antimony (III) Sb2S3,
- red iron oxide, Fe2O3,
- pyrolusite MnO2,
- chalk CaCO3,
- the glue.
What happens when you circaea match against the spread (grater)?
Red phosphorus when the friction head on the spread goes to white phosphorus, which instantly explodes upon contact with air and ignites in the cylinder, the mixture bertoletova salt and sulphur. As a result of oxidation of sulfur produces sulfur dioxide SO2, giving the match a pungent suffocating odor. Head, ignited, burning the straw, which burns with formation of coal.
The reaction occurring during the combustion head matches, is one of the most violent chemical processes. On a large scale it is one of the most dangerous.
So that when the ignition key does not turn all the spreads, particles of red phosphorus share bad burning substances - iron minium, kaolin, gypsum, powdered glass.
I hope that after reading this material you taking in the hands of ordinary match, will treat it with great reverence, than hitherto. Because it focuses not only a lot of energy, but also the experience of many generations and the work of many people.