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Do animals have their own language?

As you know, dogs can't talk like humans. But everyone knows that animals are able to produce sounds.

The animal sounds are signals that Express their status, desires, feelings. The growl of the lion heard in the district - this is the king of beasts declares loudly about his presence. The elephant, the most senior and smart in the herd, invitingly blows, lifting the trunk, collecting elephant trekking through the jungle in search of good pastures. Elk emits a loud cry, going to battle with an opponent for a female. During the mating period, doves gently COO, storks curlykat and perform dances, grouse make loud sounds, and nightingales arrange recitals to outshine rivals. Crickets-the males of their chirring attract females.

Magic trills of birds are, as a rule, songs of the males. And sing they are more likely not to attract females (usually considered), and to prevent that the territory is under protection.

Audible alarm exists in all species of animals. For example, chicken make 13 different sounds, frog - 6, males - 15, Tits - 90, rooks - 120, pig - 23, ravens - 300, dolphins - 32, foxes - 36, monkeys are more than 40, the horse is about 100 sounds. These sounds convey the overall emotional and mental state of animals - feeding, anxiety, aggression, joy of communication.

Even fish do not keep silent! They make many different and distinctive sounds, using them to communicate in the pack. Published their signals change depending on the condition of the fish, the environment, their actions. American scientists have found that fish you cough, sneeze and scraping breathing, if the water temperature does not correspond to the conditions in which they should be. Produced by the fish sounds like sometimes grunt, squeak, bark, cawing and grunting (in particular, sciene), and fish sunglasses - extraordinary set of sounds reminiscent of the bass body, croaking frogs, the sound of bells and the sound of the harp.

But the sounds-sounds are only one means of communication between animals. They also have other ways of conveying information to each other.

In addition to the sound is the original language of gestures and facial language. The grin of the muzzle or the expressiveness of the eyes of an animal vary greatly depending on his mood - calm, aggressive or playful.

Chimpanzees use to communicate rich facial expressions. For example, tightly compressed jaw with naked gums mean a threat; a frown - bullying; smile, especially with his tongue hanging out, - friendliness; pulling the lower lip, until you see the teeth and gums, is a serene smile. Inflating lips, the mother chimpanzee expresses his love for that baby. Frequent yawning means confusion or embarrassment. Chimpanzees often yawn when you notice that they are being watched.

The tail of the animal is also an expression of their emotional state. Cats keep his "pipe" at the sight of a dog or during a fight, and if the cat is waving his tail left and right, so she in a rage. Dogs, on the other hand, tail wagging when I met the owner, expressing immeasurable joy. And when the guilt the dog running out the tail.

In the animal world widely spoken "language" smells. Animals cats, mustelids, dog "mark" the boundaries of the territory where they live. The smells of animals determine the maturity of individuals, stalk prey, avoid enemies or dangerous places traps and snares. Insects with scents attract individuals of the opposite sex. To do this, they release chemicals pheromone (attractant) in the form of odorous gases or liquids, which are formed in special glands on the abdomen or in the mouth.

Mouse vole communicate using scent marks, almost like dogs. Unfortunately, their urine emits ultraviolet radiation, and this radiation can see well the main enemies voles - Kestrels and other birds of prey.

Touch is also used in the animal world as an element of communication. Look to the ants: they constantly lick and sniff each other. And tickling antennas bellies of their "cows" (aphids), ants inform them that it was time "to milk" - select drop "of milk". Monkeys often iterate over each other wool, catch fleas and other parasites - and it's not just hygienic procedure and ritual, which plays an important role in establishing relationships between animals in the herd and in the formation of the hierarchy, and also acts as a sedative. Shuffling wool in primates is the expression of affection, and sympathy, and sistiana (for example, before the leader).

The gestures and movements of animals used for communication as well as people. Gorillas beat their chest that they warn relatives about the dangers. Kangaroos, perceiving the danger, began to drum on the ground by the tail or hind legs. During the breeding season many animals and birds arrange these courtship dances. And each form of this dance its like no other! Bee-scout with dance tells such products, where a new source of nectar, and encourages them to fly behind him.

Even the color of the animal is used as an element of communication. In the spring, during the breeding season, many species of frogs and toads throat gets a bright colour. So not only do they attract a partner, but also serves a visual signal, a warning that the territory is occupied.

There are other ways of contact between animals associated with bioelectromagnetic fields and acoustic signals, electromagnetic locating the fish of the Nile elephant, ultrasonic echolocation in bats, high-frequency sound signals - whistles of dolphins infrasonic alarm in elephants. These types of signals people can only be captured with the help of instruments. And while we know about the language of animals is very small. At least, much of what they "speak" to each other, we translate can not and do not always know how to communicate individuals of one kind or another.



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