Site for children


Sergey Venezky
STORIES ON METALS

GOLD:

"KING OF METAL" - METAL KINGS

"Modest" desire. - Nut too tough. - In the Valley of the kings. - Care Of Babylon. - For convenience's sake. - "Surgical" operation. - Day and night. - Tricks of Bluebeard. - In the early hours. - The Ransom Of Atahualpa. - The Temple Of The Sun. - Ocean revenge. - "Gold fever". - Empress collection. - Not born yesterday! - Syutkin drink bitter. - Replace the tray. - The"Champions" of Australia. - Stone costume Buddha. - In deep secret. - Bacteria-solotica. - "The alchemist" of the twentieth century. - Archimedes accuses of fraud. - Who fools? - Trick of the cashier. - Medals in Aqua Regia. - In the eternal captivity. - Find in the pyramid of Chephren. - "Gold seal". - On the bottom of the Atlantic. - Space "tax".

Gold!.. No other metal has not played such a sinister role in the long history of mankind. For the right to own them was fought bloody wars, destroyed whole countries and peoples, there has been a serious crime. How much grief, suffering and pain brought people to this beautiful yellow metal...

Perhaps the first person gold brought a lot of trouble and hassle, was a Phrygian king Midas. That's what tells about one of the myths of Ancient Greece.

One day the son of Zeus, Dionysus, God of wine and merriment, along with his numerous retinue wandered through the beautiful land of Phrygia. Gradually from the noisy company behind highly intoxicated favorite teacher of Dionysus Strong. He noticed Phrygian peasants, bound with garlands of flowers and brought to king Midas. He immediately recognized the good-natured drunk the old Silenus, with honour took him in the Palace, and the ten days of feasting in honor of the distinguished guest. On the tenth day of Midas himself took Silenus to Dionysus, who joys promised Midas to fulfill any desire.

"Oh, great God Dionysus, " exclaimed the happy king of Phrygia, led to everything I touch to turn into pure shining gold!" "Modest" desire was fulfilled, and joyous Midas hurried to his Palace. Here he broke off on the road in green oak branch - she immediately became gold, touched by the hand in the box to the ears at the same moment their grain into gold, plucked the Apple - it shone with a Golden shimmer. Decided to wash their hands - the water glass with the palms Golden jets. Joy Midas has no boundaries. But the king sat at the table and only then realized what a horrible gift he begged Dionysus. One touch gold turned all the bread and wine, and food. The frightened king, which was in danger of death from hunger and thirst, stretched out his hands to heaven and exclaimed: "have Mercy, have mercy, o Dionysus! I'm sorry! I pray thee for mercy! Take back the gift!" At the behest of Dionysus went to Midas to the sources of the river Paktol. Clean water washed away with his ill-fated gift.

If a Phrygian king had malopochetnoe role to open the list of victims from the worship of gold, in these days a lady venerable age literally teeth scrawled his name somewhere in the end of this list. It was like this.

The lady failed to thristy piece of gold bathsone of the most fashionable hotels of Japan enterprising travel company established a tub of pure gold. Despite the fabulous price, wanting to bathe in the bath was more than enough. Revenues bathroom-tourist company grew by leaps and bounds. But every day was added and concerns. Even had to hire a squad of detectives, as some clients, alone in the bathroom, got thrown in the towel chisel and tried to cut a little bit of gold on the memory. Vigilant guard deprived collectors of Souvenirs opportunities to bring whatever instrument. Now, customers had to rely on our own strength. And here the same lady, about which we have already mentioned, when the time of washing has come to an end, decided... to thristy the edge of the gold bath. But the nut was not on the teeth, and a few days later the lady had to try on false teeth.

Rumor has it, though elated by the success of the company is not going to stop there, and is going to install in its best hotels Golden toilets.

By itself, this idea is not new. In 1921 Century I. Lenin, expressing vivid hyperbole contempt for the yellow God, wrote: "When we win on a global scale; we, I think, will make gold public latrines in the streets of several biggest cities in the world". And then added: "in the meantime: keep it in the RSFSR gold, sell it at a higher price, to buy goods cheaper".

The history of gold is the history of civilization. The first bits of metal fall into the hands of people thousands of years ago, and at the same time it was erected by man to the rank of precious. The gold-rich country of the ancient world was considered to be Egypt. Not by chance during the excavation of the tombs of Egyptian nobility, archeologists have found many pieces of jewelry and other gold items. "Reflections of gold broke out everywhere, just sprayed the first beam... Gold on the floor, the gold on the walls, gold there, in the distant corner where near the wall is the tomb, bright gold and bright, as if it just came out a completely new from the hands of the goldsmith..." - wrote one of the participants of the first penetration into the tomb of the unknown Pharaoh, found in 1907 in the Valley of the Kings near Thebes, on the left Bank of the Nile.

Fifteen years later, the English archaeologist Howard Carter discovered the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamen, who ruled in the XIV century BC Millennium preserved here, priceless works of ancient art, many of which are made of pure gold. The mummy of the young Pharaoh was buried in a gold coffin, weighed 110 pounds . Extraordinarily beautiful mask of Tutankhamun, made of gold and colored gemstones.

But in the tombs and crypts got only a small fraction of those truly incalculable riches, which were surrounded by the rulers of the ancient world during his lifetime. So, according to legend, Queen Semiramis of Assyria, to earn the grace of the gods, were cast from pure gold gigantic image. One such statue, about 12 metres tall , weighed a thousand Babylonian talents (about 30 tons). Even more impressive was the statue of the goddess Rhea: it took me eight thousand talents of pure gold (almost 250 tons). The goddess sat on the throne, the sides of which stood "guard": two large Golden lion.

Approximately two and a half millennia ago, the first gold coins. Their Motherland became Lydia - powerful slaveholding state, located in the Western part of Asia Minor. Lydia conducted an extensive trade with Greece and its Eastern neighbours. For convenience of calculations for commercial transactions of the Lydians introduced into circulation a gold embossed coin - stater, which depicted a running Fox, the main character Lydian God Basaria.

After the conquest of Lydia by the Persian king Cyrus gold coins began to be minted in other countries of the Middle East. Widespread, for example, darice - coins of the Persian king Darius I, in which he represented shooting a bow.

Among the monarchs were those who had a very original way added gold coins to his Treasury. In 1285 the king of France was Philip IV, nicknamed Beautiful. It is difficult to say whether he was really handsome, but that he was cunning and greedy Governor, confirmed by numerous facts. Seeking to expand their knowledge, Philip IV waged an endless war, which demanded a lot of money. Constantly feeling the financial difficulties, the king, is not affected, apparently, excessive sensitivity, went to all sorts of fraud and deception. In his secret order of the stolen gold coins have been minted in the mint "surgical" operation: they were ground on, and from the resulting sawdust produced new. This method of "reproduction" gold money allowed from 100 coins to get 110-115, and if you try, you and more. Philip IV personally supervised the issue of new money, and grief was the one who is not very diligently contributed to the strengthening of Royal power.

The middle ages was marked by lush flowering of alchemy, which became all the rage, which was given by old and young. Attempts to transform into gold other metals were taken a long time, but never before they were of smaller mass character. Day and night in a dark dungeon stone castles were glowing flame in the furnace of the alchemists, around and shimmering with all the colors of the rainbow, was boiling on the fire of mysterious liquid in the retort, suffocating smoke rose from boilers and crucibles.

Believing in the possibility of finding the "philosopher's stone" and get with it gold, alchemists and their patrons sought to stay ahead of their competitors. On this basis, the growing mutual mistrust, there were reasons for ridiculous charges allegedly committed the crimes. For example, in 1440, the French Marshal Gilles de Laval, Baron de Retz, went down in history under the ominous name of Bluebeard, was accused of killing hundreds of girls, from the blood which, in the opinion of the Church, he and his friend the alchemist of Fransola Prelate produced gold. At the request of the Bishop of Nantes Baron de Retz, Prelati were betrayed into the hands of the Inquisition and soon burned at the stake. After almost five centuries, in 1925, under the ruins of the castle, where dwelt the Baron de Retz, was discovered gold-bearing quartz vein from which Prelate mined gold to Blue beard.

In the early sixteenth century, when the alchemy of passion was still raging in Europe, the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors found a more profitable way of mining gold: they were subjected to barbaric plunder ancient States of America, opened in 1492 by Christopher Columbus. Accumulated over many centuries by the Aztecs, the Incas, the Maya and other peoples of the New world gold wide stream flowed into Europe.

The conquistadors never dreamed those fabulous treasures, which stood before them in the land of America. When in 1519 Hernan Cortes landed in the port of Veracruz, the Indians, unaware of what fate has prepared for them a white-skinned stranger, presented him with a gift, besides many decorations, two huge disk the size of a cartwheel - gold and silver. Drives symbolized the Sun and the moon.

The ancient peoples who inhabited Latin America, gold was considered a sacred metal, the metal of the Sun God. Their kings and priests invented a lot of rituals that were supposed to testify about the unbreakable bond between the power of the powerful and rich, had given them gods of gold. One of these rituals was the following. In the early hours of the leader of the Aztecs rubbed the fragrant oil, and then at the signal, the high priest sprinkled with gold powder. Gold leader, setting in entourage on a reed raft, went sailing on the lake towards the rising sun. When molten disc rose from behind the mountains, began the ceremonial washing of the leader, during which the priests showered him from Golden cups and bowls rings, bracelets, pendants and other ornaments of gold. After this procedure, no one would be left little doubt that their Lord is the son of the Sun.

A huge amount of gold accumulated in the temples. The ceiling of one of them was all covered with delicate gold stars, gold dragonflies, butterflies, birds, as if weightless, hovering over the people and were so great that their beauty was caused reverent admiration of all who came to this temple.

One of the leaders of the Spanish invasion was Francisco Pizarro. In the early 30-ies of the XVI century he stepped on the land of the Incas, where at that time there were civil wars. The mere appearance of strangers at first, did not Bode for the Incas no trouble. On the contrary, their leader the Great Inca Atahualpa decided that the gods had come to help him victorious to end the war.

Pizarro promised Atahualpa freedom in exchange for the amount of gold that can fill a large roomPizarro invited the Great Inka to the feast. Atahualpa arrived at the celebrations on the gold stretcher, decorated with feathers. Neither he nor his entourage were not armed. This only had the cunning to the conqueror. On his signal the Spaniards attacked the guests broke the whole retinue, and the leader was taken prisoner.

After Atahualpa few days in detention Pizarro promised him freedom if he within two months gold fill a large room in which he was imprisoned at the height of the raised hand. The great Inca agreed on this fantastic buy. All over the country were sent messengers Atahualpa, and soon to the place of his imprisonment stretched string of porters, hanging heavy with Golden vessels, figurines, ornaments and other products. A pile of gold rose, and yet, when he expired two months, the room was not filled to a specified height. Although the leader of the Incas was convinced Pizarro that we will have to wait a bit, he decided to execute him, as, in the opinion of the conquistadors, the Great Inca could be a dangerous foe.

When it became known about the death of Atahualpa, was the caravans of llamas, Laden with gold. The Incas were in a hurry to redeem their leader, but, having learned that he was killed by the Spaniards, all their precious cargo hid in the mountains Asanger, which means "the most remote place". Among other treasures from the hands of the invaders escaped a huge gold chain: according to legend, in order to raise it took not less than two hundred people.

But to hide all their wealth Incas could not. The Spaniards managed to capture and plunder Cuzco is one of the richest cities in Peru. His adornment was covered with gold temple of the Sun. The walls and ceiling of the Central hall of the temple were decorated with gold leaves, and on the East side of it shone gold disc - the face of God with eyes made of precious stones. When the first rays of the rising sun fall on this disc, the mysterious eye of God was lit up with colored lights. Adjoined the temple of the Golden garden. Trees, shrubs, birds - everything was neatly made of gold. In the garden stood the Golden thrones on which were seated statues of the sons of the Sun - the Great Inca.

A few weeks after the arrival of Pizarro sacred city of Cuzco was looted to the ground. The Spanish conquistadors unceremoniously destroyed developing for centuries the culture of the Incas. The most valuable creations of the ancient masters they were melted down into gold bars, which were convenient for transportation across the ocean.

For two centuries fleet Galleons loaded with gold, annually departed from the shores of the New world, heading for the Iberian Peninsula. But, as if in revenge conquerors, the ocean repeatedly snatched from their hands looted gold and securely hidden in their depths.

Diving rests a lot of sunken ships, Laden with goldIn 1622 near Florida, unable to withstand the fierce storm sank the Spanish Galleon "Customers Margarita" and "Nuestra Señora de Atocha, which claimed on the bottom of a large amount of gold and other jewels. Two decades later, the victim of a ferocious hurricane were sixteen Galleons "Golden fleet, bound for the Spanish port of Seville. Historical documents preserved in the archives show that the total value of the cargo of these ships (and lucky they are mostly gold) is tens of millions of dollars. Fourteen Galleons "Golden fleet" was swallowed in the ocean off the coast of America in the spring of 1715, when there was a tornado of unprecedented strength.

All, according to historians, in the Caribbean, for example, the remains of about a hundred Galleons. Approximately the same number of ships sunk off the southeastern tip of Florida. Bahamas and Bermuda cemetery more than sixty Spanish ships. Finally, about seventy Galleons lie on the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico. And all they can literally be called gold, as on Board of each vessel were enormous wealth. Suffice it to say that one of them is the Galleon "Santa Rosa" - dragged on the seabed piles of gold and other treasures from the famous Palace of Montezuma. All in all, according to some foreign experts, the ocean "borrowed" from the man of gold, silver and other valuables at several hundred billion dollars.

These fantastic sums for several centuries excite the minds of the hunters. Especially large scale searching for underwater treasure took recently. In many countries, publishing books, atlases, maps, which shows the exact and the estimated coordinates of the loss of ships Laden with jewels. Every year hundreds of expeditions sent into the sea on the extraction of gold and silver. Sometimes the sea hunters are lucky, most of them will be disappointed. But the ocean continues to attract thousands of treasure seekers.

As the search for gold on the ocean floor connected with many difficulties, much more mass character always wore attempts to find this yellow metal on the ground. As soon as any part of the globe was able to open a new gold piece of land, there immediately rushed thousands and thousands of fortune seekers covered by the attack of gold fever - a disease that does not appear in any medical dictionary, but it is wonderfully described in many stories by Jack London and Bret-HART.

Because of a few grams of Golden sand people lose part of their humanity, the brothers were shooting at each other, sons killing fathers. This was the beginning of the XVIII century, when gold deposits were discovered in Brazil. So it was in the middle of the last century, when the gold rush began pouring in molten California, and after a few years in the deserts of Australia. So it was in the 80-ies of the XIX century, when the eyes of the greedy light up a crazy gleam in the word 'Transvaal". It was ten years later, when epicenters gold fever began Klondike ice and snow of Alaska, which shortly before the Imperial government literally for pennies sold to the United States of America.

Preserved photographs of "black snakes", cleared road through the snowy peaks of the polar mountains: it was an endless string of people pulling on the shoulders or on small sledges your belongings - drawn dream to come back with bags full of gold. Alas, for most of the stampeders this dream never came true.

In the last century gold deposits were discovered in Siberia on the banks of the Lena river. But the history of Russian gold dates back to earlier times.

In the beginning of the seventeenth century appeared the first Russian gold coins - dimes and nickels issued Vasily Shuisky.

When the Empress Elizabeth Petrovna appeared large gold coin - with a value of 10 rubles. In accordance with the title of sovereign of Russia coin was called the Imperial. Apparently, Elizabeth was partial to gold: after her death in the Palace left a solid legacy is the many large and small chests full of gold coins.

From rulers tried to keep up and venerable nobleman. So, in 1711, Prince Gagarin decided to surprise the world with his wealth and ordered a luxurious carriage, upholstered overseas silk. Wheels he commanded to okovati silver, and horseshoe eight horses made of pure gold. You know, they say, our: also, they say, were not born yesterday!

Gold mining in Russia began in the mid-eighteenth century, after the 1745 farmer Yerofey Markov in their quest for the crystal to the Trinity Lavra opened on the banks of the Ural river Berezovka first Deposit this metal. The Urals became the cradle of the domestic gold industry.

Here in the Urals was discovered and the largest in our country, the nugget of gold that weighed 36 pounds. Found it in 1842 in the basin of the river Miass workman Miass plant Nicephorus Syutkin. In St. Petersburg, where he was soon delivered a godsend, it has caused quite a stir. No joke - the largest nugget of Russia! The superintendent of the mine was awarded the order of Stanislaus, managing crafts - annual salary salaries. Well, the main hero of the occasion? One old magazine wrote that Syutkin "drank the bitter, fell, was late for work and couldn't stop until, while it is swollen, ragged and bound hand and foot is not led by the order of administration of the plant to the mine and not subjected to brutal torture by the rods in the presence of at one point, the beating of a drum mine workers".

The order was awarded the superintendent of the mine, and Syutkin, who found the nugget, start drinking...

Working conditions on the Goldfields of tsarist Russia were extremely heavy. From morning till late in the evening eaten by mosquitoes and midges prospectors, not straightening the back, washed their primitive trays tons of sand. No accident here and there there were strikes. The most famous of them, broke out in 1912 on the Lena Goldfields, entered the history of the Russian revolutionary movement.

New equipment, new orders came to the gold fields after the revolution. From semi-artisanal fishery gold mining has become one of the most modern industries. Prospecting tray can be found in our days only in the Museum. Gold mined today by using drag cars, reaching the height of a four-storey building, equipped with automatic devices, remote control devices, industrial television set. According to economists, powerful dredge, which serve only a few people, replaces heavy manual labor twelve thousand miners.

Separated from the waste rock tiny gold particles are subjected to further processing, obtaining in the end a small gold bars. But often this metal occurs in the form of natural bars - nuggets. One of them is the largest in Russia - we have already mentioned. The most large in the world, the nuggets were found in Australia in the last century. In 1869 there was a meeting with the "welcome stranger", weighed 71 pounds . And three years later was discovered "plate Holterman", which together with impurities weighed 285 pounds , about 100 of them were accounted for by gold. These unique gifts of nature are not preserved: both bands were melted down into ingots.

Sometimes the gold is in the most unexpected places. Near Bangkok, capital of Thailand, was known by whom and when brought huge Buddha statue. Fifty years ago this place decided to build a large sawmill, in connection with which the statue was necessary to move to another place. And now, when it was removed from the basement, despite the precautions taken, suddenly broke the stone bust of the Buddha and in the depth of the cracks and splits something gleamed. Leaders work decided to take pictures with the statues lining, and appeared before the present Buddha made of pure gold and weighs 5.5 tons. Specialists have found that this ancient monument has at least seven centuries. Apparently, in the years of internecine feudal wars the owners of the Golden Buddha, just in case, and put on him a stone "costume", but again to strip them something prevented. Now the statue is kept in the famous Golden sanctuary Bangkok.

Throughout its history mankind has extracted no more than 100 thousand tons of gold. A lot of it? Perhaps no. To confirm, let's consider an example: if the amount of gold present in the form of a cube, then its height will be equal to just 17 yards . Only in the earth's crust, according to geologists, a total of approximately 100 billion (!) tons of gold. Practically inexhaustible supplies of this metal is dissolved in the waters of the oceans and seas of our planet. Ocean gold "treasures" constantly replenished: river flowing through gold-bearing areas, wash the precious metal from rocks and take to the sea.

Attempts to extract gold from sea water have been made more than once. One of the first to have done this immediately after the first world war, the German chemist Fritz Gaber, driven by the idea to facilitate Germany's payment of indemnities. In 1920 in Dahlem, when subsidies Bank, and Frankfurt assay chamber in the deepest secret Committee was established to find ways of extracting gold from sea water. During the eight years of continuous searching the Haber managed to develop accurate methods of analysis, allows to determine the gold content it just 0,0000000001 grams per liter, and the ways in which the concentration of this element in water could be increased to 10 thousand times. It would seem that success is at hand. But... (how often in the last moment it occurs unexpected "but"...) carefully conducted tests showed that the actual gold content in sea water is about a thousand times less than expected Gaber. It became clear that the game is not worth the candle.

At the present level of technology, it is not seems to be unsolvable. Many foreign companies are now research in this area, and who knows, maybe in the next few years, the ocean will become an inexhaustible gold mine.

Very interesting another direction, which are now, for example, scientists from France and the USSR: we are talking about biometallurgy processes. Recently science has discovered bacteria, "devouring" gold. Some species of fungi were able to suck it out of the solutions covered in this film gilding. Mushroom, the film is dried, calcined and get the gold, however, in very tiny amounts. This method has not yet emerged from the walls of the laboratories, but scientists believe that intense biochemical activity of a number of creatures it can be used in practice to extract the gold from the different rocks.

These days gold is available from... other metals. "Let me ask you, " do come true the dream of the alchemists and the philosopher's stone"finally found?" It's not in the "philosophical stone" - it successfully replaces nuclear physics. Bombarding with neutrons in nuclear reactors iridium, platinum, mercury, thallium, scientists are "mined" radioactive isotopes of gold. For this purpose, you can use accelerators - circular or linear setup, where with the help of electric and magnetic fields accelerate charged particles.

Just for fun, note that modern English physics, should be, has repeatedly violated the law, which was signed in the XIV century by king Henry IV: "Anyone, whoever he was not allowed to turn ordinary metals into gold. Over the next several centuries, no one could become zakonomernosti, despite the fact that wanting was more than enough, and only in the XX century Royal law was "violated" by scientists.

So, with the history of gold and loot the reader is already acquainted. Well, what is this metal? What he finds application today?

Gold is one of the heaviest metals. It is this property that allowed the Archimedes be accused of fraud court jewelers Syracuse king Hieron, made by his order of the Golden crown. The king asked the scientist find out whether pure gold made crown or part of it replaced by another metal. In our days this task on the shoulder of the student. But in the third century B.C. even the great Archimedes had to smash his head in order to carry out the assignment of the king. The scientist did he weighed the crown, and then plunged it into the water and determined the volume of the water displaced. Dividing the weight of the crown on this volume, he received not 19,3 (which corresponds to the density of gold), and a smaller value. This meant that jewelers has assigned part of the gold, replacing it with other, more lightweight metal.

Pure gold is very soft and ductile metal. A piece of it the size of a match head can be pulled in the wire length of several kilometers or flatten in a transparent bluish-green leaf area of 50 square meters.

If you carpot the nail on the pure gold, it will remain a trace. So gold is going to jewelry usually contains the so-called ligatures - additive copper, silver, Nickel, cadmium, palladium and other metals, giving the gold strength. In those cases when treated with the gold in its pure form, rather large quantities of it turn to dust.

In the paint, which was covered with a roof, over the centuries accumulated 8 kg of gold!At the end of the last century in the U.S. there was a curious case. Not far from the Philadelphia mint was an old Church. Once it has been repaired, one of the residents offered to sell him no good roof for a fairly large sum of three thousand dollars. Church community decided that the buyer was nuts, but as long as the dollars themselves are solicited in hand, not to take advantage of this simply sin. The transaction took place and... churchmen fools. Alert the buyer has sweeping roof paint and burned it in the ash was about 8 kilograms of gold, the value of which far exceeded the amount paid by them to the community. It turned out that for many years the gold dust flew through the pipe foundry mint and settled on all surrounding objects, and most of all - on the Church roof.

No less cunning was the cashier of one of the largest European banks. The event in question occurred on the eve of the first world war, when most countries had been in circulation gold money. Daily in banks flocked thousands of coins, where they were counted, sorted and sealed in paper. Usually these operations are performed on a special wooden tables. But one day one of the cashiers before you begin, put on the table brought from home a piece of cloth and laid out the money. The boss was delighted with such accuracy and long put the cashier in the example for others. Every morning he carefully got out of his Desk drawer sukonku, and when he was out working day, carefully rolled it up and hid in the table. On Saturdays the cashier took her home, and on Monday brought in a new piece of cloth. This continued up until the servants of the cashier not blabbed that every Saturday he puts sukonku on the pan and burns. Gold particles stuck for a week in the villi, melted and turned into a tiny little wedge of precious metal.

One of the most important properties of gold is its extremely high chemical resistance. It is not valid neither acid nor alkali. Only formidable Aqua Regia (a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids) capable of dissolving gold. This circumstance took advantage of the once famous Danish physicist and Nobel laureate Niels Bohr. In 1943, fleeing from the Nazi invaders, he was forced to leave Copenhagen. But he held two gold Nobel medal to his fellow German physicists anti-fascists James Franck and max von Laue (medal of the Boron was removed from Denmark earlier). Not risking to take the medals with him, he dissolved them in Aqua Regia and put unremarkable bottle away on the shelf, where it remained many bottles of bubbles with different liquids. Returning after the war to his laboratory. Bor primarily found precious bottle. At his request, the staff was isolated from the solution of gold and re-made both medals.

Gold is often called the "king of metals", surrounded by a halo of glory, appreciate and revere. And yet the fate of his unenviable because gold - eternal prisoner. In fact, as soon as extracted from the earth's gold comes into the hands of man, as he again sends the precious metal in the prison - in the impenetrable safes, armored basements, concrete dungeon. That is, for example, Fort Knox, where several rows of barbed wire that carries electrical current voltage of 5 thousand volts are major gold reserves of the United States. Distant approaches to the Fort protected the ten towers, equipped with perfect electronic equipment surveillance. Installed in the towers and machine guns and quick-firing guns automatically focus on the goal. The Fort is divided into sectors that have flooded compartments. All the rooms of the Fort can be a few minutes filled with poisonous gas that can quickly wipe out all life. In the heart of the Fort in a special concrete block, hermetically closed dvadtsatisloynoy door with sophisticated locks, stored the gold in America. Electronic eyes for a moment not to close the eyelids. Over Fort constantly patrolling helicopters. Such protection is not rewarded by any other prisoner in the world.

A relatively small part of the mined gold is used today in the manufacture of jewelry and dentures. Interestingly, in the role of prostheses gold was still in ancient times: one of the tombs in the Egyptian pyramid of Pharaoh Khafre in the early 50-ies scientists have discovered a mummy, three teeth were bonded with gold wire. This dental bridge consists of four and a half millennia. Used gold and ancient surgeons. So, during excavations conducted in South America, archaeologists have found the skull of the leader of the Incas. Finding very interested physicians, as the noble owner of this skull has undergone surgical operations on skull traces skillfully executed trephination, and formed on the bone hole ancient surgeon gently closed by a thin plate of gold.

Until recently, the technical needs of spent a little more gold than prosthodontic work. In recent years, the industry started to show gold increased interest. More and more of the yellow metal as a material for transistors and diodes absorbs electronics. From alloys of gold with platinum are doing a piece of equipment for the production of synthetic fibers, which are the conditions of production must possess exceptional resistance to chemicals.

In vacuum technology use technically pure gold, which at high exhaustion firmly sticks to being in contact with him copper. Molecules of one metal can penetrate into the other, and mutual diffusion is performed at temperatures that are substantially lower than the melting temperature of each of these metals, or any of their alloy. Resulting from this exchange is a fairly strong connection technique called "Golden seals.

Gold make gaskets and washers for responsible components of particle accelerators, they solder the various joints on the camera tube and accelerators. The gold is safely closes all loopholes air, so the installation is kept extremely high vacuum in billions of times less than atmospheric pressure. And the higher the vacuum in the chamber, the longer "live" in her elementary particles.

To help gold were forced to resort engineers, who in the mid 50-ies laying telephone cable across the Atlantic ocean. If telegrams between America and Europe there are already more than a hundred years, the transatlantic telephone conversations until recently seemed a distant dream. The main difficulty lay in the fact that the current coming over the telephone line, quickly waning. How can this be avoided? Could help the amplifiers, which, being situated at some distance from one another throughout the cable, would support the amperage. And to protect these devices from the disastrous effects of sea water, many details of their proposed was to cover the gold. So I managed to solve a complex technical problem, and in 1956 took place first in the history of the telephone conversation across the Atlantic.

There is no doubt that gold will make a significant contribution to the exploration of space. In particular, English artificial satellites "Prospero" and "Ariel", designed to study the ionosphere, were not simple, and gold: they were covered with a thin layer of gold. The fact that the "king of metals" provides efficient temperature control exterior cladding satellites, is not oxidized, passes the ions and other charged particles, thus preventing their accumulation, which can lead to some unplanned "emergency". About 41 kilograms of gold was spent on the manufacture of parts of the American space Shuttle "Columbia".

The need in the industry gold is growing from year to year. Perhaps, sooner or later, this precious metal will part with steel safes and go to the factories and in the laboratory, where it is always interesting work.

 

  © 2014 All children