Wood ignites spontaneously at a temperature of 300 degrees, so in order to make fire, the ancient people had for a very long time rubbing together pieces of wood.
In Ancient Rome for the transfer of fire used wooden sticks that are dipped in the molten sulfur.
In the late 18th century, scientists began to apply to obtain fire wood splinters, the ends of which were fixed head from potassium chlorate (bertoletova salt and sulfur. When the cylinder was immersed in sulfuric acid, it flashed.
In 1833 the composition of the mass of a match head was introduced white phosphorus. However, these matches were very smelly, and their production is harmful. Finally, in 1847, the researchers found that white phosphorus when heated in a closed vessel (without air) instantly turns into red phosphorus, which, firstly, less volatile, and secondly, Padova. Such a match was ignited by friction on a rough surface, made of the same red phosphorus, glue and other substances. Such a match was first launched in Sweden in 1867-1869 years, and their long called Swedish.
Today the head of a match consists of flammable substances (phosphorus sulfide and sulfur), and oxidizing agents, which provide the oxygen necessary for combustion. On the side of a matchbox put special phosphorus mass (chalk, glue, red phosphorus and other substances). When we three head of phosphoric pasting from red phosphorus is formed white, which, as we know, oxygen is easily lights up, releasing a lot of heat.