Now let's talk not about poisons, invented by people, and those without harm elk swallows thousands of years.
Interesting information on this can be found in scientific publications E. K. Timofeeva. Elk devours the bitterness - plants with lactones, alkaloids, essential oils. These substances have to suffer nervous system, kidneys, heart... But bahatomu get away with everything. You can see, the shirt was born. In Yakutia he calmly nibbling horsetails, the stems of which are quite poisonous alkaloid equisetina and other unpleasant compounds. Caustic Buttercup and poisonous to livestock globeflowers also not hurt it.
Needles, fed the cows, will cause the mucous membranes of the intestines and kidneys. Elk during the winter from the needles of juniper and pine gets a lot of terpenes, formic and acetic acids. And nothing... the Most incredible that on the coast of the Rybinsk reservoir moose ate leaves milestone poisonous, which was lost whole herds of cows and sheep.
How can this be explained? First of all, let us be fair. Elk are not alone, his relatives deer then he will not concede. Know more: poisons plants have different effects on mammals. For example, belladonna strongest impact on man, a little weaker on dogs, little horses, almost no effect on goats and absolutely indifferent to the rabbit.
But for us it's not about the rabbit and the elk. Now, his stomach two times less than in cows of the same weight. Then there is food in elk worse digested, and therefore, the body absorbs less of the poison. In addition, tannins is a sort of antidote to the alkaloids, which they adsorb. So, having eaten poison, elk immediately and takes the antidote. Poisons are neutralized in the stomach and blood does not reach. And one more thing: that cow poison, elk can be useful substance. For example, in zoos, where the moose don't give willow bark contains salicylates, they become ill with rheumatism.
Autumn is the season of mushrooms. And moose take this into account. From their point of view, orange-cap boletus - all mushrooms mushroom, boletus - silver medalist, and white, although among the winners, but only in third place. But mushrooms are not food, and seasoning to the menu. It is generally, but particularly in the Tambov region was home to elk, which really hunted for mushrooms, and the Pechero-Ilych reserve once calculated that manual cow per day ate two hundred mushrooms.
In suburban forests many knocks cap toadstools, saying, needless beautiful grebe. First, really nice mushroom (why ruin the beauty?), and secondly, for the moose (and not only) the mushroom is not grebe, and medicine. Eating some red in the pea hats, Alces lie down and wait for the mushrooms will demonstrate a therapeutic effect, get rid of worms. For the same purpose animals chew mint, Veronica and Pogrebok.
In summer, moose gormanston. Here leaf of birch'll pinch, there's a cherry tree swallows, and then goes slipnot sweet: in glades and lawns in the grass produce more sugars than in the shade. Above all moose respect Ivan-tea. It is like black caviar. But here's what fad. Some fresh plants Ivan-tea Alces somehow do not touch. This lonely plant whole herd will bypass. What's the matter? What's bad in a good looking flower?
...Elk island, elk court, elk Palace. These names are so familiar that it has lost its original meaning. Lush words mean only quiet place in aspen or willow thickets, where the winter home to the company's elk. Probably, these secluded places more accurately termed moose café, and even better - the dining room.
Brown body and light legs good mask elk among the snow-covered bushes. In rich snow of winter, when it is difficult to walk, the moose is not to disguise, dining rooms and bedrooms are arranged in dense spruce forests. Here and drifts below (snowflakes settled on spruce paws), and from the cold easier to hide less blows.
As soon as it dawns, moose taken for a meal.
This important fact, they are usually up to 11 hours a day, and then pobedenny break and again feeding until the end Kuts winter day. From our point of view, elk fills the stomach sawdust: chew sticks finger, twigs, bark, Sawdust... inflate the belly, and have 22 times a day to empty your bowels. So in elk dining room are dirty.
Bark moose is not always in the teeth: if the air temperature is below minus four, the teeth slide on icy clothes tree as glass. But in the thaw beast its not going to miss it. Pulls with osinki flap of bark and then start the next. Plunging the teeth, the elk like a chisel rips the bark from the bottom up. He greedily bites not only in greenish skin aspen, but in the flexible body Rowan, and young oak. And of coarse, in the cracks of the bark of the four-legged drevoedom not like, and he does not touch.
Nutrition adorable moose aspen bark for winter growing. It is three times more protein and one and a half times more fat than in the summer. But not only wasp alive elk: in the second half of winter he crunches less nutritious branches of birch, willow, pine. From this Trinity alone is worth the pine. Probably, elk it consumes because of pine needles and a lot of phosphorus, which is very low in winter dishes. Where elks lot, they begin to be even resinous spruce trunks, zesati her needles.
The dining room clear boundaries: 't get a branch above 2.5 meters above the ground and below the meter from the soil to bite inconvenient interfere with long legs. Therefore, met in the forest neatly trimmed bushes, don't be surprised - it was done by the elks. Sometimes animals are pushing the boundaries of the dining room: washing the barrel of wood between the front legs, were pressing on him like a tank, and bending down to the ground, pick the crown.
If Stolitsa the company more than three moose, animals lag - pass per day not more than two hundred meters. Moose-single and groups of three animals in the same forest, the same day ten times more vigorous, although the feed they get more. One word - paradox.
The appetite of the four-legged Gargantua enviable per year, each mulling over seven tons of forest products: four tons shoots, half a ton of foliage, seven hundred pounds of bark, the rest is grass, shrubs, mushrooms... And here's the strange thing - winter appetite worse than in summer: in frosty January day average moose eats an average of only thirteen pounds shoots.
These pounds consist of 750 shoots. I understand that a book about animals is not a textbook of arithmetic, but think of the numbers - 1750 crippled branches or tops of the young trees on a frosty day! The elk robbing stronger - their daily rate two, and bulls - half thousand shoots. Not awful?