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THE MENAGERIE AT THE PORCH
CROWS

WHAT THINKS FEATHERED GENIUS

Raven got in fairy tales and fables: and sassy she and the thief, and she is mostly all right. But other accusations she suffers in vain. Here is a verse from the fable I. A. Krylov:

Uticals myself peacock param tail.
Crow with Awami went to walk presumptuous...

Crow important swinging when walking is not from complacency. To go otherwise she can't - her fingers close together, not splayed, like many birds.

But in another fable of Krylov gave a crow of thinking skills that still causes under great doubt ornithologists.

On spruce crow thromosis,
Breakfast was absolutely gathered.
Yeah was thinking about it...

And to think some sort and nothing: the cortex of the brain in birds undeveloped. So and felt like they had on instinct thing cannot go. "However, this prejudice has arisen due to the fact that this anatomy is given too much importance, too little attention is paid to the behavior. However, there is the opposite tendency: according to now, the birds on the complexity of the behavior of inferior only some mammals" (P. suture "animal Behavior").

The behavior of birds for us to understand easier than cricket or crocodile: our sensory apparatus is similar to the bird. And we, and poultry lion's share of information about the world derived from pomoshyu of view, and other animals are guided mainly by smell, touch or hearing.

Still, crow tricks stumped any of us. For example, a person in suit dancing on the balls of naphthalene scattered in the garden. The famous German zoologist B. Grzimek wrote about manual Raven, who had come to light matches. Burning match they brought under the wings and luxuriated in smoke and flame. Feathers during the procedure almost opallis. What is it? Sanitary-hygienic event or some kind of addiction?!

Crows do not forget about the other forces of nature such as gravity. If you cannot razdolbai beak strong shell, they soar into the sky and throw the shell on the stones or on the highway. Somehow the ravens as forceps for chopping nuts used Tashkent airport. In the morning, when at the airport relative calm, crow flock bombed concrete runway walnuts, strapped in the adjacent gardens! Crows well versed in the mechanical properties of soil - feature soft silt and sand from concrete and asphalt.

But the gulls can't figure out what shell on the sand not hurt yourself. The Ethologist N. Tinbergen once patiently considered: Seagull 39 times in a row threw the same shell on barely covered by shallow water. Well, not a piece of stupidity? How much work, and all in vain.

What can you say about crow accounting abilities? They famously say mind up to five. On Raven staged a RAID (they accurately detect guns and never admit to themselves on the shooting distance). If the shelter consisted of five people, the flock did not return until all the hunters did not lose patience and never went back home. If the shelter climbed in, say, nine people, and came out of it six or seven crows-observers have lost count and decided that everything is in order, gave the signal to return. And then went down the hammers.

In the age of electronic calculating machines of birds also develop computational skills. American researchers L. Stettner and K. Matinal told about the experiment with the Raven, which is considered to seven. She was still something to sum up - triangles, different stains or painted rhinos.

What the crow thinks? Academician I. S. Beritashvili in the book "the Memory of vertebrates", wrote that during the development of conditioned reflexes (memorized reactions) in the nervous system of animals is rapidly growing activity of the enzyme cholinesterase. Of course, the crow thinks not enzymes. They many not decide. Nerves also not enough. So a little bit to realize you need the gray matter of the convolutions. Some equivalent of this Raven is. Here is the output of Beritashvili: "the birds of the cortical plate together with hyperstriatum perform the functions of the neocortex of mammals". This is not a speculative conclusion, and the fact that obtained experimentally. (The neocortex, he will bark and "smart". What is the cortical plate is also understandable - not bark, but only the Deposit. Thinking helps hyperstriatum - striped body of the bird's brain.)

In the title crow proclaimed feathery genius. In fairness it should be said that candidates for the genius among the few birds. One of them is Raven, a fellow crows. About him written so curious, that's amazing. Chicks crow and crow in the company of a man quickly become tame and improve their intelligence. They are easy to learn fun things, for example to remove the hat with a guest or logged to correct the hair mistress of the house. Costs them nothing to get used to fly out of the room and return for the night.

However, Raven is able to kill the chicken, crow - chicken. Some ravens bursting from pathological passion strive painful to bite man in bare feet. With dogs, horses and cows they sometimes enter into a friendly Alliance and provide them a variety of services, ranging from search fleas and ending self-sacrificing protection.

Crow birds can be carriers. But, alas, valuable items, especially shiny coins, they cannot be trusted - skimming off.

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The menagerie at the porch

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