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GREAT COMPOSERS

PETER ILYICH TCHAIKOVSKY

(1840-1893)

P. I. Tchaikovsky
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky

If the music in the rustling grass, the rustle of steps, chime clock in the living room, their voices outside the window, in the poetry of Pushkin and Shakespeare... If from the first sounds of Mozartova "Wedding of Figaro", which played at home magic orchestrina, heart sank and his eyes were filled with tears...
If the clock can sit by the piano, playing from memory, sometimes only once heard melodies... If all music books mother replayed many times... If the head breaks from new, never none not yet written and not full of melodies...

If all life in music, can you leave her, you av to force myself to share with other music classes?..

The young man tried: from the native Votkinsk mother took him to St. Petersburg law school, after which he was determined to serve in the Department of the Ministry of justice. Three incredibly long and boring, he tried faithfully to perform their duties. And finally could not resist: not leaving the service, he enrolled in the newly established St. Petersburg Conservatory. "Sooner or later, he wrote his sister, " but I'll change the service to the music... Will I be famous composer or a poor teacher, but my conscience is quiet and I'm not going to have a serious right to complain about fate and the people".

After a year of studies at the Conservatory, the young man, to the chagrin and bewilderment of the native, threw Department decided to link all their lives to music.

"By Glinka me, maybe not to compare, " he wrote to his older brother, vozmuschennogo his "frivolous" step, " but you'll see that you will be proud of kinship with me!"

Faith in his calling led him hard, troublesome and not always joyful path to glory and immortality.

To be relaxed and happy to tell someone about his feelings, he needs sounds. A few days of idleness between the two piano lessons already make him restless, unhappy. Everything that hinders given to composition, frustrating to the last degree.

Glory, flowers, applause, rave reviews in the Newspapers, dozens of proposals to come on tour to cities in Russia, Europe and America - it was much later. But first, there were years of hard practice and the first serious experiments. Praise and sharp observations demanding teacher Anton Rubinstein, composer and pianist, Director and founder of the Conservatory. Music lessons in wealthy homes for a living is a tedious, sometimes humiliating. Every day they took the time this music, creativity.

But the Conservatory successfully completed and together with the diploma of freelance artist received an honorary offer from "Moscow" Rubinstein - Nicholas, brother of Anton Grigoryevich, to move to Moscow and take a composition class for the newly organized second Russian Conservatory. Not about teaching dreamed of the young Tchaikovsky. He had the talent and knowledge, he had a lot to give to young musicians, but his whole being sought for other activities. And nature, extremely shy, modest and dreamy wasn't good enough, it seemed, for pedagogical work. However, the proposal Rubinstein, after some hesitation, was adopted.

Reached twelve hard years living and working in Moscow. Classes with students, useful, interesting, but... used to take so much time and energy. The teacher doubts: "do Not do I have all his time, all his strength to give to the cause, which I love, which is the whole point, the whole essence of my life?" But that time, he had enough to create many wonderful creations.

In these years were born to his first Opera, the famous symphonic fantasy "Romeo and Juliet", "the Tempest", "Francesca da Rimini", the First concert for piano and orchestra, songs, chamber works and music of the best in the world of ballet "Swan lake".

P. I. Tchaikovsky. Dance of the little swans from the ballet "Swan lake"
(Act 2, Pas de Quatre)

Now we never get tired of listening to these works, every time I admire their extraordinary clarity, simplicity, richness of melodies. While not everyone is fascinated by the young composer. He needed support, approval, and Newspapers were brought down on him the offensive flow, random, cheeky remarks: "a vague subject, interesting processing, ambiguity, verbosity and unnecessary details. We almost know by heart the music of "Swan lake", it is hard to believe that contemporaries Tchaikovsky could write about her dry, indifferent reviews: "There are a few happy moments... but overall the music for a new ballet quite monotonous, boring", "poverty of imagination", "the monotony of themes and melodies". Quickly disappeared from the scene, the first Opera by Tchaikovsky, "the Governor". Score another Opera, "Ondine", he destroyed himself. Had no success and "Oprichnik" and even "the Blacksmith Vakula", which the composer himself was very fond of (he later rewrote the Opera and gave it the new name "Slippers").

But Tchaikovsky worked, did the music suffered and believed that the time ahead.

Then came the tragic in his life 1877. Failed marriage to unfamiliar and caught him completely alien to the student at the Conservatory ended up trying to commit suicide and severe nervous shock. Tchaikovsky immediately went to Petersburg, and from there, on the advice of doctors abroad.

P. I. Tchaikovsky. Lensky's Arioso from the Opera "Eugene Onegin"

Takes Peter Nalitch

Beside him were his favorite younger brothers, friends supported him through his letters from Russia. And among them "the good genius of the composer's Hope Filaretovna von Meck. She subtly understood the music of Tchaikovsky, responded to every thought, every little noticeable movement of the soul. In 1877, after learning about the plight of the composer, N. Nadezhda von Meck, a wealthy Moscow patron, in a very delicate manner suggested Pyotr Ilyich their friendship and financial support. In the letters it had a lot of sensitivity and care about him, about his work that Peter Ilyich could not accept this help. Thus began their friendship. It was an unusual friendship. Sometimes, they lived near, we watched each other in concerts, on walks, but never approached one another, did not speak. Such was the desire of Nadia filaretivna. And in the letters they opened each other's most intimate thoughts, endlessly talked about music, about the creative plans Pyotr Ilyich told of relatives.


Hope Filaretovna von Meck

Thirteen years of continued correspondence. Three thick volumes of the letters of Peter Ilich to von Meck, and her letters to the composer open to us now is extremely rich spiritual life of Tchaikovsky, views, thoughts, give a glimpse into the secrets of his creative laboratory.

Thirteen years Nadezhda Filaretovna annually sent Tchaikovsky large sum of money, taking care that he was free to do and not to depend on the service. And only when the fame and glory came to the composer, she interrupted the correspondence and ceased to send money to him, quiet for him. Tchaikovsky was trying to renew the relationship, but she remained steadfast.

Since 1877 the composer very much wandered abroad, and for the winter came back to Russia. For seven years he visited many cities of Germany, France, Italy, Switzerland. And travel does not interfere with the work. In these years written the Opera "Eugene Onegin", "the maid of Orleans", "Mazeppa", the Fourth Symphony, "Italian Capriccio", String Serenade, Festive Overture "1812". The second piano and violin concertos, numerous chamber works and songs, the famous Trio memory N. G. Rubinstein.

More and more frequently performed works of Tchaikovsky in Moscow and in St. Petersburg. A growing number of fans and lovers of his music in Russia and abroad. Decisive was founded in 1878 when at the Paris world exhibition of Nikolai Rubinstein organized Russian concerts", which performed the best works of Tchaikovsky.

However, neither resounding success abroad, nor the bright beauty of foreign cities, roads, landscapes could not overcome every day growing homesickness. "You can live only in Russia, " he writes, Hoping Filaretovna, and only by living outside of it, comprehend the whole force of his love to our dear, despite all its shortcomings, the homeland". "Why simple English landscape, " he writes in another letter, " why walk in the summer in Russia, in the village across the fields, through the woods, in the evening in the desert, used to lead me into such a state that I lay down on the ground in a sort of exhausted from the influx of love to nature, from those inexplicable sweet and intoxicating sensation that made me forest, Prairie, river, village in the distance, the humble Church, in short, all that is sordid Russian darling landscape. Why all this?" "I haven't met anyone more than me in love with mother Russia... I'm passionate about the Russian people, Russian language, Russian mentality, the Russian beauty parties, Russian customs".

Therefore, these Russians were obtained from him romances, the chamber plays, operas, symphonies.

Often the motives of sadness, loneliness in his music join free and easy folk tunes and go to picture people's fun. It is easy to trace, listening to the famous Fourth Symphony. Composer in a letter to von Meck, at her request, try to tell what thoughts and feelings put it in the music of this Symphony.

The first portion. Introduction (introduction) there is a grain of the whole Symphony, of course the main idea...

This is fate, this is the fatal force that prevents the impulse to happiness to reach the goal, which jealously guards to prosperity and peace were not full and bright... It is unbeatable, and it never will. It remains to be humble and fruitless to miss...

...Is it not better to turn away from reality and dive into dreams...

...As well. How far now sounds insistent first theme of the Allegro.

...The dark, dreary forgotten. Here it is, here it is happiness!

No! These were dreams, and fate awakens from them.

So all life is a continuous alternation of hard reality with fleeting dreams and dreams of happiness..."

P. I. Tchaikovsky. Symphony No. 4. Part 1
 

The second part. "That melancholy feeling which is in the evening, when sitting alone, from work tired, took the book, but it fell from his hands. Was a whole swarm of memories. And sad that so much of it was passed, and it's nice to reminisce youth... Were joyful moments... there Were difficult moments, irreplaceable loss. All this so far. And sad and sweet to delve into the past.

P. I. Tchaikovsky. Symphony No. 4. Part 2
 

The third part does not Express a certain feeling... the soul is not fun, but not sad. Not thinking about anything; give free rein to the imagination, and for some reason it started to draw strange pictures... Among them suddenly remembered the picture podgotovka peasants and street song... Then somewhere in the distance was a military procession. Those are completely disjointed images that rush in my head, when I fall asleep...

P. I. Tchaikovsky. Symphony No. 4. Part 3
 

The fourth part. If you yourself do not find reasons for joy, look at other people. Go to the people. Look how he knows how to have fun, giving unreservedly joyful feelings... They don't even turned around, glanced at you and didn't notice that you're lonely and sad. Oh, how fun! How happy they are that they all feelings in a direct and simple. Expostulate on yourself and don't say that everything is sad. There is a simple, but powerful joy. Enjoy other people's happiness. To live all the same..."

P. I. Tchaikovsky. Symphony No. 4. Part 4
 

This Symphony Tchaikovsky wrote in the winter of 1877. Then don't lay down in the shower confusion, which left his personal hardships. And yet the joy warmed the finale of the Symphony, with its familiar melody of the folk song "In a field the birch stood.

The first three symphonies of Tchaikovsky, graceful in form, melodic, inspired by the paintings of native wildlife, domestic scenes, only the sample in his symphonic works. With the Fourth Symphony begins touching confession of the composer's soul, deep in thought about life, struggle and death.

In the Fifth Symphony - the same struggle between good and evil, the same desire for joy, light and collided with a brutal life. The main theme of the Symphony permeates all parts. First, grim and stern, by the end changes its character, moving in solemn life-affirming melody ringing of March.

Sixth, the last Symphony "Pathetique" - the top of the symphonic works of Tchaikovsky. He thought of her as a tragic story of human life, a deep sense and clear thinking, about his struggle and suffering, about his hope for a bright future and the dream of joy not only his personal, but his people. And the thought of poverty, illiteracy, lawlessness of the Russian people very worried about the composer in the last years of his life.

After seven years of wandering Peter Ilyich settled, finally, in a quiet provincial area on the outskirts of Klin, near Moscow. There was everything, what he so long sought: a modest, since childhood expensive Russian nature, birch, favorite lilies of the valley, meadows and woods, the river with gentle Russian name Sister. Residents of the Wedge, friendly lanaudiere "good barino Peter Ilyich" in a difficult moment came to him for help. They didn't know what he was doing, why so long one wanders around and writes, stopping suddenly in his notebook...

P. I. Tchaikovsky "Waltz of the flowers" from the ballet "the Nutcracker"
 
An excerpt from the cartoon "the Nutcracker"
(the Studio "Soyuzmultfilm", 1973, dir. B. Stepantsev.; based on the tales of E. T. A. Hoffmann and ballet P. I. Tchaikovsky.)

There was no importunate visitors, fans, city bustle. Silence, peace, labor. Simple birch rustic table in the bedroom by the window. For it is written, the best of creation Tchaikovsky: the Queen of spades and the Sixth Symphony. In the window you see the top favorite birches and calm sky, and in the distance the open river Sisters...

Aria Herman from the Opera "the Queen of spades"

Performs Vladimir Atlantov

Next, in the living room - Becker, piano, which was set up by the owner. In the evenings he played the beloved Mozart, Chopin, Beethoven, Schubert - everything in its rich musical library. In the evening he sometimes spent with my closest friends, who came to him from Moscow. Then use "Becker" was captured for four hands - the owner loved to do transcriptions for four hands.


State house-Museum of P.I. Tchaikovsky in Klin

Concerts in St. Petersburg and Moscow in recent years, Tchaikovsky conducted many), tours in other cities of Russia, Europe and America sometimes tore the composer from favorite places, from creativity. But with the greater pleasure he returned to his home on the edge of the Wedge, with the greater pleasure was getting to his Board, roughly hewn table by the window.

He now stands, this table, in the bedroom of the composer, where everything remained as it was decades ago. Is the piano, which was touched by the hand of the great Tchaikovsky. Twice a year - in spring, in the composer's birthday, and in the autumn, on the day of his death, the best pianists in the country, and sometimes honored foreign guests with reverence open the lid of the instrument and then the house is filled with wonderful music.

On the door of the house vintage metal sign:

P. I. TCHAIKOVSKY
Admission on Mondays and Thursdays from 3 to 5 PM

Impossible without fear to open this door and enter the house, where everything was left as it was on his last day in the wedge.

When Tchaikovsky lived in the wedge, the locals knew about him only that he's a good gentleman that he loves children and always treats them with sweets, which he planned to build for the wedge-ski boys national school and, though he himself was not very rich (even the house could not afford to buy, take on lease at Klin homeowner)gave to this school for their money.

And now the Wedge - city Tchaikovsky. Here every citizen knows his music, his biography and happily greets all who from distant lands came to visit Pyotr Ilyich. And there is no other place on earth, which would have been well received by the music of Tchaikovsky, as in this house on the edge of the Wedge.

When, impressed by everything they saw and heard, close the door behind home with cherished plate, you remember the stirring words of A. P. Chekhov:

"I'm ready day and night to stand in the honor guard at the porch of the house where he lives, Peter Ilich, - to such an extent I respect him..."


Great composers

Reprinted from the book N. Kolosova Hello music!" (Moscow, Molodaya Gvardiya, 1964)

Your comments:

Eden
2014-04-20 11:34:17
Beautiful music!!!
theme
2013-12-22 11:45:50
the Nutcracker music lonely shepherd of the coolest music
the lone musician
2013-12-15 12:46:40
this is not a song! this is called mu-za-ka
Katya
2013-11-07 12:51:19
where the seasons are the same P. I. Tchaikovsky
Pianist
2013-11-04 15:00:07
Stop arguing about "seasons", please. This cycle has Vivaldi and Tchaikovsky.
Svetlana
2013-10-29 15:20:11
Nastya, what a disgrace 0 Times, he wrote Tchaikovsky, not Vivaldi.
Inna
2013-09-29 13:28:12
I love the song P.I. TCHAIKOVSKY
Grisha
2013-06-21 16:04:44
Where the album P.I. Tchaikovsky's "the seasons"
Polina
2013-04-24 21:45:29
Nastya where the seasons? This is the music of Tchaikovsky

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