Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky
Not to get acquainted with the people, and to pobratatsia will sojdetsya: scary and good!.."
"People want to do: sleep and see him eat and think about it, drink - and seems to me he is, he is one, whole, large, unpainted..."
People read articles Herzen, Chernyshevsky, Dobrolyubov, poems of Nekrasov. People leafing through thousands of pages of the history of Russia and European countries. Head is splitting from daring thoughts, my heart cries out in pain, feeling the bitter despair at the fate of the native people. Man covers the hot feeling of shame that he is a landlord, let the poor, but the owner of the "serfs shower".
More recently he, a brilliant guard, was a welcome guest in secular living. Graceful, well-bred, French-owned freer than Russian, great pianist, singer and dancer,who, if not him, smiling with happiness, who, as his name was thoughtless career guards officer?
But suddenly, to the chagrin of family and surprise friends, he abandoned his "happiness" and resigned. And now he's not an officer, and clerk. But after some time and not the landowner more: after the peasant reform of 1861 he lost his share of the inheritance to the eldest brother on the condition that his former serfs of the land without compensation. He was young, but knew that was invented by landowners reform, the so-called "abolition of serfdom", was not released, and robbed the peasants.
It is not scared of their own poverty, he only thought about one thing: we need to serve his people.
So began the life of the great Russian composer modest Petrovich Mussorgsky.
At the age of seventeen he first heard the music of Glinka and Dargomyzhsky. The young man, from childhood loved folk songs, was shocked by the people's warehouse arias Susanin, Antonini, Ruslan and Lyudmila, Natasha (from Dargomyzhsky's Opera "Rusalka"). He went out that evening with a strong desire to write the same Opera. But it didn't work: he did not know the rules of composition, did not know the basics of music theory. He began to read, to listen to the conversations of musicians.
One evening at Dargomyzhsky appeared Mily Alexeyevich Balakirev.
Mussorgsky reached for Balakirev from the first meetings. He began to show him his first experiments, despite the fact that Balakirev was harsh and merciless in his criticism. He dreamed that Balakirev gave him lessons in composition, and he agreed. Balakirev was at that time only twenty years old, and as an educator, he had no experience. But the young Mussorgsky, musically gifted, but uneducated classes Balakirev, of course, has benefited. Sometimes with him came to music lessons Cesar Antonovich Cui, often there centuries Stasov.
A young officer in the society Stasov and Balakirev felt like a dummy. Coming home, he hurried to catch up with them during the night he spent on books. And day - parades, divorce, stupid army life. Pulling music, books, wanted to be friends, but neither the strength nor the time is not enough. And then came the decision to leave the service. Friends were alarmed - is it worth the risk, when the musician's career so sad and shaky? But he remained firm in his decision. His name was music.
He began with songs, with a small orchestral pieces. Whatever wrote - he was dreaming of living people, scenes from folk life, happy, sad, sometimes bitter to tears.
Fascinated by his ideas of Russian folk Democrats. One time, I lived in a "commune", which many appeared among the leading intellectuals of the sixties after the publication of Chernyshevsky's novel What is to be done?". Each of the members of the commune had its own small, modestly furnished room, where they usually worked the morning and in the evening met all in the common room and read together, discuss new articles, events, books...
Pushkin, Gogol, Nekrasov steel favorite writers Mussorgsky.
In 1864 appeared first song on words Nekrasov "Sten". The composer called it "a Study in folk style". The song was not like any ordinary song or ballad. This little drama is built on contrast images. On the one hand, smooth, light, lullaby tune "will Be happy, Callistratus" and, on the other hand - bitter malarstwo of the poor:
And came by the will of God
The prediction of my mother:
There is no richer, no handsome and,
There is no happier than Callistratus.
In key water kupaza,
A handful of Cesu volosiki,
With nezamechennoi of prosinecki,
Then came the "lullaby Eryomushki" in the words Nekrasov, "Sleep, sleep, a peasant's son," in the words of A. N. Ostrovsky, "Hopak" in the words of T. Shevchenko, "Svetik Savishna" and "orphan" on their own texts.
The desire to "pobratatsia" with people growing in Mussorgsky. He was accustomed, he listened, remembered especially bright images encountered people, their melodious speech. Thought about the Opera of the national life.
When friends asked him to try to write music to Pushkin's "Boris Godunov, Mussorgsky immediately grabbed a bold idea. With enthusiasm he took up the study of Russian history, was acquainted with Pushkin materials, texts, emails. Libretto of the Opera Mussorgsky wrote himself, taking the text of folk dramas of Pushkin.
"That develops in the tragedy? What is it? - Individuals and Nations, the destiny of man and the destiny of the people," - Pushkin wrote about his "Boris". The same idea was the basis of Mussorgsky's Opera.
In the prologue of the Opera composer gave two paintings. In the first picture we see the people who gathered outside the Novodevichy convent in Moscow. In the orchestral introduction is a sad, disturbing melodies. The people obedient, poor. Died one king, another will come. Who shall sit on the throne - the people are all one, no matter who came, the poor not be easier. Police officer with a baton threateningly yells, "Well, what are you? Well you idols? Alive on your knees!"
Reluctantly lowered people to their knees, hands. But the bailiff Stossel - and again they began to talk among themselves, forgetting that they need to mourn the deceased king.
M. Mussorgsky. Opera "Boris Godunov" . Prologue
The second picture. Bell ringing. The square in the Moscow Kremlin. Crowned on the throne of Boris Godunov. The people at the bidding of the boyars glorifies the future king sluggishly, reluctantly. And Boris is not happy celebration. Gloomy foreboding bothers him. In Arioso Boris, cheering choir nation listeners feel the tragedy. The Opera prologue foreshadows the dramatic developments.
And then, one picture after another reveal the story of king Boris. The chronicler Pimen tells about the murder of Tsarevich Dmitry, the sole heir of the deceased king, and accused of murder Godunov. A young monk Gregory learned about it, decides to impersonate Dimitry, to raise the people against Boris, hoping to take the throne. So there is an Impostor. Gregory runs abroad, relying on the help of the Polish gentry, who have long sought to capture Moscow Kingdom.
In the Opera the image of Boris, as in Pushkin's drama, very contradictory. He is smart, wise, he cares about the development of the state, he strives to make life easier for people. But people don't believe him, not love him, unwilling to forgive the king-killer.
One of the most powerful tragic scenes of the Opera - the end of the second act. The monologue of Boris "I have Supreme power" shaking to the core.
M. Mussorgsky. Aria Boris "I have Supreme power"
from the Opera "Boris Godunov"
Evgeny Nesterenko Sings
Boris learns about the Impostor, who dismisses the people with a rumor that Prince Dimitry not perish and must occupy the Royal throne. Horror fills the soul king. Everywhere he looks, he sees the Ghost of the murdered baby. Unable to bear, Boris falls unconscious. And already it is a pity that a tired man, and already do not want to blame him.
But here is a new scene at the Cathedral of St. Basil the multitude came together, excited by rumors of a living Prince of Dimitry. People are hungry, dissatisfied. It is not that indifferent and lethargic crowd, which reluctantly called Boris. Grumbling, discontent, even the threat expressed in bitter cries of the poor people, his skinny hands to Boris: "Bread, bread to the hungry, give!"
Boris gloomy, worried. And suddenly miserable, resentful boys Fool refers to the king: "Boris, Boris, offended fool. The boys took a lot of money, led me to kill, as you killed the little Prince." The crowd quieted. Boris, curbing anxiety and anger, Fool asks to pray for him. The crowd listened. "No, Boris!.. You cannot... you Cannot pray for king Herod". So the people of the lips of a Fool shall sentence the king.
M. Mussorgsky. Crying Fool
from the Opera "Boris Godunov"
Party Fool takes Ivan Kozlovsky, party Boris Alexander Pirogov
The Opera ended with the death of Boris Godunov.
M. Mussorgsky. The Death Of Boris
from the Opera "Boris Godunov"
Associates at the "Mighty handful" eagerly watched the birth of every new song, every new scene of Boris Godunov. Extremely precise characteristics of the characters, vivid, memorable images of musical Opera led friends of the composer's delight. The music was as life is difficult and at the same time simple intonations, nothing like that no one has yet heard. About the courage of the content and can not speak.
Mussorgsky was afraid that Boris will not be allowed to put: banned same censorship Pushkin print drama. And for good reason. Pushkin spoke about Russia's past, that it was easy to find in the drama threads, extending to the present.
But the first version of the Opera met at the Imperial theater only one objection: no female party. And without female party up to that time there was not a single Opera. Friends advised the composer to enter the Polish scene and the image of Marina Mnishek, the bride of the Pretender. But, holding the new scenes, the composer has altered a lot and have already written. Still thinking about how to show a tacit condemnation of the people of the king, and the riot folk, Mussorgsky introduced in the Opera scene in the Chrome. Now is not the death of Boris, and BTA scene has completed the work - rough picture of the people's rebellion and the massacre of nobles, powerful folk choir "Dispersed, was cleared prowess valiant", the appearance of the Pretender with the poles and finally, crying Fool predicting new troubles deceived by an Impostor people:
M. Mussorgsky. Song Of A Fool
Leites, Leites, bitter tears,
Cry, cry, the soul of the Orthodox,
Soon the enemy will come and there will be darkness,
The darkest of dark, impenetrable.
Woe to Russia, cry, cry, Russian people,
from the Opera "Boris Godunov"
Party Fool takes Ivan Kozlovsky
The Mussorgsky and his friends were very satisfied with the new version of Opera. After the Opera, Mussorgsky wrote on the title page of the score: "I mean the people as a great personality, odushevlennoe single idea. This is my goal. I tried to resolve it in Opera.
"Boris Godunov" thanks to the perseverance of some of the Imperial Opera singers were allowed to deliver. The premiere was good, Mussorgsky there were a lot of fans, but the fate of Boris was sad: he was removed from the scene as "Ivan Susanin and Ruslan and Lyudmila. "It was rumored that the Opera did not like the Royal family, what her story is unpleasant censorship," wrote Rimsky-Korsakov.
Working on "Boris Godunov, Mussorgsky had conceived a new Opera based on the story from the times of the Streltsy rebellion. New page of history of the Russian people was fascinated by the composer. He again "fraternized" with people, enthusiastically worked on his "Khovanshchina". And dreamed of the Pugachev rebellion" - the third Opera, you wanted to write "the Captain's daughter" by Pushkin. "The Pugachev rebellion" Mussorgsky did not have time to write, prevented premature death. Not been completed and "Khovanshchina" and fun "Sorochinskaya fair".
Failures, constant lack of money has undermined the already disturbed health composer. He died forty-two years, failing to implement many of their plans, leaving us placers brilliant sketches, ideas, thoughts. Fortunately, friends, highly appreciating his talent, gathered these materials, processed, something finished, orchestrated. Especially a lot in this respect did Rimsky-Korsakov and his disciples Soviet composers Ippolitov-Ivanov, topically Opera "Marriage", and Shebalin, completed and instrumentally Opera Sorochintsy fair.
"Song of the Flea", "Dawn on the Moscow river" (introduction to the Opera "Khovanshchina"), piano plays "the great gate", "the Hut on chicken legs", "Ballet out unhatched Chicks", "Gnome" from the cycle "Pictures at an exhibition", symphonic picture "Night on Bald mountain" and other works by Mussorgsky often performed now in concerts and on the radio, well known to many, many students. "Mighty handful" of people, passionately loved music of Mussorgsky, turned into a multi-million army. "Fraternization" with the people of whom lifelong dream composer, was complete and final.