M. I. Glinka Picture from photo Sergey Levitsky, 1856
In the house of a formidable and capricious grandmother was a music. From hot, excessive heated room it was impossible to go outside no winter, no autumn, no spring. The house was beautiful, and beautiful Park surrounding it, and meadows, and fields, and flowers, and all the village of Novospasskoye. It all belonged to him, the favorite grandmother. But what it all is, if it is forbidden to leave the room, forbidden to play with the guys? Why grandma loves him, if she screams, serdes, cooks, coachmen or a maid? Why she won't let him in the room of parents and hostile winces when the mother comes to him with his little sister?
How wonderful bells ringing in the Church, how sad sing girl outside the window, but all this is far, where walking is not allowed. The only consolation were the songs and tales of the beloved young nanny Avdotya Ivanovna. Soft, gentle boy grew painful, nervous. The priest, who goes to the grandmother, the boy taught himself to read.
When he had passed ten years and grandmother had no parents to teach him different Sciences, music and languages.
Teachers and relatives could not admire the success of Michel.
In Novospassky estate often gathered guests and the parents were invited musicians from the orchestra of the mother's brother Glinka, who lived in a neighboring estate. Michelle clock kept orchestra - forgot about the party and dancing. Musicians, besides dancing, playing instrumental pieces and Russian songs, arranged for orchestra.
Music and books about travel, about distant countries most fascinated young Glinka.
In 1817 Michel was taken to Petersburg and determined in the house when the Main pedagogical Institute. He went willingly and successfully. In the first years of his tutor was a friend of the poet Pushkin Decembrist Kuchelbecker, and the younger brother of Pushkin lion, who studied with him, became his friend.
More and more fond of music, Glinka began to take lessons from famous artists.
When it happened to him to play the piano or sing in the circle of friends, he did it with such feeling and so skillfully that the audience eye was ran tears.
The glory of the first-class pianist and sensitive singer made him a welcome guest wherever he loved and understood music. He met Zhukovsky, Pushkin, Krylov, Gogol, Griboyedov. He, like all progressive people of that time thought about the fate of native art, native literature. Duma Decembrist Ryleeva about the heroism of the Russian peasant Ivan Susanin attracted Glinka his heroic theme and paintings of Russian folk life. Glinka loved the orchestra, knew each tool and wanted to write for orchestra. He knew how to sing and work with singers and wanted to write for singers not only romances and songs. Music lived in it. "Music is my soul," said he. He could not write, but felt that not enough familiar with the rules of composition that knows little works of famous European composers. In St. Petersburg there were at the time of the Conservatory, there is rarely visited with concerts of famous musicians, and music works of the famous composer in Europe arrived in Russia by accident.
M. I. Glinka. Waltz-fantasy
In 1830 Glinka went abroad. In Italy, meeting with famous musicians and singers, performing in concerts and in the homes of music lovers, Glinka soon became famous as a pianist. He listened to music concerts, Opera and, most importantly, on the streets of Italian cities, eagerly caught new, fresh tunes, which wasn't there fault. But the more he immersed himself in a bright, magical world of Sunny Italy, the stronger pulled him to his homeland, the apparent loomed his own path in music. There, in Italy, and then in Vienna and Berlin, all slimmer was tossing in my head melodies and plans of Russian symphonies, Russian operas, Russian romances.
And so the day came, when in St. Petersburg at the court Opera, accustomed to the brilliant Italian overtures and incredible voice of visiting celebrities, singer in costume peasant girls sang suddenly in Russian sad and soulful song "Not about mourning, the podruzhenki..." On the stage were men in sandals. Their arias and choruses reminded of a simple country song... In the hall of the ladies in sumptuous silks and diamonds, officers in brilliant uniforms, officials, covered with orders, looked at each other in bewilderment, disgust frowning. But no one dared to get up and leave: the Emperor himself sat in the Royal box and was pleased. Is he allowed to put Opera and even ordered to give her the title "a life for the Tsar".
Chorus "glory!" from the Opera M, Glinka's Ivan Susanin"
From Glinka's Opera was called "Ivan Susanin", and he wrote it on the Duma Decembrist Ryleyev, proud of the heroism of the people, and excited the fate of Kostroma peasant Ivan Susanin. But Opera had no place to put, except in the court theatre, and had to make concessions to invest in mouth Susanin and peasants words of praise of the king and to change the name of the Opera.
The music was talking about something else. The music was opened responsive and generous heart of a simple farmer, his love of country, courage and nobility. All the sympathies of the composer were clearly on the side of the people.
M. Glinka. Ivan Susanin's Aria.
Takes The Maxim Mikhailov
Pushkin, Gogol, Odoevsky - advanced people of his time - enthusiastically adopted the first truly national Russian Opera and defended Glinka from the evil attacks of your enemies, immediately called the music of Glinka's Kucharski". "That's good, " said learned about it Glinka, and even true, for the coachman, in my opinion, delinea gentlemen".
Pushkin, in response to the production of "Ivan Susanin"wrote:
Listening to this novelty,
Envy, malice, aracati,
Let grinds, but it Glinka
To trample cannot in the dirt.
No amount of persecution could not stop Glinka. He went his own way, he punched a new way of Russian music.
Soon after "Ivan Susanin" appeared "Waltz-Fantasia for orchestra - a work of extraordinary poetic and colorful. At the same time Glinka wrote the music to the drama of the Puppeteer "Prince Kholmsky". Drama has not stood the test of time, but the music of Prince Chelm is well known to us, and all that posted by Glinka.
In these years were his famous songs: "Doubt", "the Night Zephyr", "the fire of desire", "I remember a wonderful moment", "Lark", "the traveling song".
M. I. Glinka. "The lark"
M. I. Glinka. The song "I remember a wonderful moment". Sings Oleg Pogudin.
Immediately after setting "Susanin" Glinka took on a new Opera - "Ruslan and Lyudmila". Pushkin learned of plans Glinka, was glad, and gathered himself something to remake the youth in the poem for the Opera. The death of the poet prevented them to work together. However, the Opera was written. Love to Pushkin, the belief in the eternity of his beautiful poetry expressed Glinka in the famous song Bayan. Music "Ruslan" rich melodies and bright characteristics of heroes - wise Bayan, gentle Lyudmila, passionate Goryslav, brave and noble Ruslan, hot Ratmir, funny and boastful Farlaf, the wise old man Finn, evil Naina and insidious Chernomor.
To this day composers studying Opera at the scores of "Ruslan and Lyudmila". Opera Glinka did not come down from the scene not only of the Soviet and foreign Opera houses.
But it is now. And it does not see and does not know Glinka. Premiere of "Ruslan and Lyudmila" in 1842 met was an influential audience indifferent. And despite the fact that "simple" listeners Opera was received enthusiastically (it held thirty-two representations for three months, and for those times it was a rare case), in the next season of "Ruslan" was not. The score barely managed to publish the sister of the composer only after his death.
Fragment from the film "Composer Glinka" (dir. G. Aleksandrov, 1952)
Here is a story about the history of the writing of the Opera "Ruslan and Lyudmila" and how was its premiere.
Glinka, who gave much time this Opera was suffering indifference to it. Constant harassment, accompanied by the composer after the play "Ivan Susanin", upset his health. He could not stay in St. Petersburg, the more that family life he was very unsuccessful.
In June 1844 Glinka went abroad. After spending a year in Paris, he went to Spain. Traveling through the cities of Spain, Glinka was captured the unusual beauty of its nature, and enjoyed the conversation with ordinary people, admired their songs and dances. Sang Lee muleteer, danced, whether peasant girl, Glinka, enchanted, listened to, recorded tunes, and enjoyed them. Then these impressions of the composer has developed into beautiful images symphonic overtures "Aragonese jota" and "Night in Madrid".
In Russia Glinka returned in the summer of 1847. Living abroad, the composer was homesick. Returning home, he met with ill-will noble the public, again suffered the attacks of your enemies. Not finding me gone, again, leave again. All this had a pernicious effect on his health prevented to carry out the plans, and there were many plans. Glinka dreamed about new symphonies, operas, cantatas, new chamber pieces.
His "Kamarinskaya" - famous fantasy on two Russian themes songs - the first Symphony, born in Russia. No wonder the great master of the Symphony P. I. Tchaikovsky said that "Kamarinskaya Glinka, as the oak in the acorn, is all Russian symphonic school.
Glinka were necessary support and approval. Unfortunately, people really understood the significance of his works, was not enough. "Connoisseurs"who lived near him, saw the composer of the future glory of Russia. Descendants found in it the beginning of Russian classical music, which after Glinka conquered the whole world.