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GREAT COMPOSERS

GIUSEPPE VERDI

(1813-1901)

Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Verdi

Staggering thrones. In France and in Germany, in Austria and in Italy 1848 started revolutions.

Raw February night fifteen hundred barricades blocked the streets of Paris. On the streets sang "La Marseillaise". The French king abdicated and fled.

Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi arrived in Paris to attend the first performance of his Opera at the Paris theatre. In January 1848 he learned about the people's uprising in Sicily. In February - about revolutionary speeches in Naples. In March rose Milan. Unarmed inter - workers, artisans, small shopkeepers, students were not afraid to fight with the troops of the Austrian army. Five days of battle. And the rebels won. Engels wrote that heroic Milan made "the glorious revolution of all revolutions of 1848".

Giuseppe Verdi was not able at this time to live away from home. Regardless of the risk, went to Milan. One of the leaders of the Italian revolution, Mazzini wrote to the composer: "Now, more than ever, Italy needs your music."

After returning to Paris, Verdi composed the revolutionary anthem "Sound the trumpet". And in January, 1849 decorated with national flags of the Roman theater of Argentina was shown a new Verdi's Opera "the Battle of Legnano". Her story was taken from the history.

At the battle of Legnano near Milan) the militia of the Union of the North Italian cities inflicted a decisive defeat of the knights of the German Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who wanted to enslave the country. And although it happened long ago, in the XII century, listeners understood that the composer had in mind recent events. Performances of the Opera were accompanied by popular demonstrations. Thousands of people have repeated the Patriotic words of the chorus: "long live Italy!" And not by accident, when, after the defeat of the revolution seized power, the enemies of the people, they immediately ordered to remove Opera from the stage.

In search of a plot for operas by Verdi turned to the works of classical writers. However, he chose only those works that are consistent with his views, beliefs, feelings, could, in his opinion, be close to thousands of listeners.

Russian composer A. Serov wrote: "Like all mighty talent, Verdi reflects their nationality and your age. He is the flower of its soil. He is the voice of modern Italy. ...Italy, awakened to consciousness, Italy, uneasy political storms; Italy, bold and passionate furiously".

In his early operas, the composer was fond of large historical events. One by one he deployed to students all new scenes. He seemed to have no time to describe each character. He was anxious to ignite the heart, to inspire all his plan. These operas lacked integrity; their heroes were often only conditional carriers of certain ideas.

Over the years, the works of Verdi became more Mature. Not only to show the event, but also to reveal the characters, and ordinary people, became his task. "The human characters and their actions, collisions can be music," he said. Now the whole world is anxiously watching the characters such great Verdi operas as Rigoletto and La Traviata.

The plot of "Rigoletto" is taken from the drama of the French writer Victor Hugo "the King amuses himself". Censorship immediately demanded to replace the king by the Duke, and even issued a censure "famous Maestro", chosen as "immoral" story. But the king or the Duke - this doesn't change anything. In this and in another case before us the Lord-tyrant, a cruel despot, for which costs nothing for an empty fun to destroy the life of any of the subjects.

The Opera will remember you. After giving himself a poor student, Duke once met She is the only daughter of his faithful jester Rigoletto. By order of the Duke's servants kidnapped a girl and brought her back to the Palace. Rigoletto is suffering. He fiercely condemns the ruthless, heartless nobles, humbly begs to return his beloved daughter. Then she decides to take revenge. And now hired killer, which will help the clown to settle accounts with his master, the sister of the murderer, the beautiful Maddalena, lured frivolous ruler in a secluded house on the banks of the river, but... But she suddenly becomes a pity the beautiful Duke, she asks her brother to kill instead of someone else - well, at least the first who knocks at the door. This first was Gilda. Rigoletto gets tied in a sack the corpse, but before you throw it in the water, decides once again to face the enemy. Lightning momentarily breaks the darkness, illuminating the unfortunate victim. Rigoletto learns daughter.

J. Verdi. Aria from the Opera Rigoletto Rigoletto. Performs Muslim Magomayev

In the Opera "Rigoletto" the jester becomes the executioner. Oppressed makes merciless verdict captor. And, despite the tragic ending, it's done: declared a fight to the death.

The music of the Opera is based on the oppositions: near dark anxiety Rigoletto - gentle, naive thought of Gilda, next to the tribulation humiliated jester - careless gaiety of his master. Opposing musical performances of Verdi's as if tied together in the famous Quartet: carefree fool the Duke, who did not touch broken them human life, suffering, deceived Gilda, laughing Maddalena, Rigoletto, frozen in anticipation of the hour of revenge. Each of them has its own melody, unlike any other, and all the melodies coalesce into a coherent whole, beautiful and expressive. Hearing this Quartet, the author of the play " role To play" Victor Hugo said, not without envy: "If I had the opportunity in their dramas to make four persons spoke at the same time and at the same time, the audience would distinguish between their words and mixed feelings, I could not reach a smaller effect.

A very important place in the Opera "Rigoletto" took Verdi orchestra. He not only accompanies the singing, but it is as if the protagonist of the Opera, all the time helps us to feel better experiences of characters. Thus, the junction of the Opera takes place during the terrible night of storm. The composer managed wonderfully to convey the ominous howling wind, disturbing and terrible thunder, even the brilliance of lightning as embodied in the music. The tragic events are interpreted against this background, much deeper.

There are a few operas, music which has so come into our lives as music Rigoletto. Suffice it to recall the Duke's song "Heart of beauty". By the way, Verdi, knowing that his melodies very quickly made known to the premiere kept this song in secret. Only at the last rehearsal he handed her the first performers of the Opera. And he was right. In the evening after the performance, already thousands of people were singing a cheerful tune.

Song of the Duke of Opera G. Verdi "Rigoletto".
Performs Sergei Lemeshev

 

Its fate is another famous Opera Verdi - La Traviata. The first view it was a complete failure. It seems incredible. The audience, usually with hot approval took his favorite Opera composer. But "La Traviata", undoubtedly one of the best! What's the reason for the failure?

New, unusual sometimes not immediately met with understanding and support. In "La Traviata" Verdi showed something that has never before been on the Opera stage. He created images of their contemporaries. The heroes of the performance were the same costumes as the audience, sitting in the hall; the scenery was not reproduced Royal chambers, not the battlefield, not a medieval castle and the common room, again familiar to each according to his own home. Yes, and the plot is obychnyj: the story of how it was destroyed, killed the love of secular young men and women of his circle *. All this was customary in life and unexpectedly on the scene. That's why people are so Opera was received. But the composer believed that his new toreya will understand and appreciate. Indeed. A year passed, "La Traviata" was staged again and since then continues to March victoriously through all the Opera houses in the world.

Drinking song from the Opera Rigoletto Verdi's "La Traviata".
Play Ivan Kozlovsky and Galina Pisarenko

In 1871, was the first performance of Verdi's "Aida". The composer wrote it on the proposal of the Egyptian government for a celebration of the opening of the Suez canal. If in "La Traviata" by Verdi showed the lives of their contemporaries, the new Opera action transferred to four thousand years ago in ancient Egypt. And yet what is happening on stage, really care about the students. The courage, the love, the consciousness of the debt, the belief that every nation has the right to be free, the hatred of the dark forces of evil, who are ready at any cruelty to hold in their hands the power -- that's what feelings covered by the characters of the Opera.

J. Verdi. Triumphal March from the Opera "Aida"
 

"Aida" was the twenty-fourth Opera by Giuseppe Verdi. He created twenty-six. After "Aida" he wrote operas sixteen years.

Giuseppe Verdi lived alone on his estate of Sant'agata. Covering the head is a simple straw hat, without fearing the scorching sun, the world-famous composer hours worked in the fields or snouts together with the peasants artesian wells. He looked like a peasant: sparkling white beard on rough and swarthy, avetrana, tanned face, a strong peasant hands. And no wonder. "The great master" came from the peasants, spent his childhood in the village is hard, harsh childhood of the poor.

And in old age, he again left the glittering gold luxurious halls, Opera houses, to hold the shoulder a hoe, go in the morning together with neighbors-farmers in the field.

Weeding, hoeing, reaping - and for many years a single note! And then, suddenly, in the eighth decade when no one from him nothing was waiting, Verdi for several years has created two great Opera "Otello" and "Falstaff", both on Shakespearean themes. In these operas he reached unprecedented depth characteristics, the amazing expressiveness of the music, great veracity.

...Giuseppe Verdi was not eight, when he came into the perfect uselessness of his beloved friend, the old, "ridiculous" spinet **. But there was in the village of good people, music master, he repaired the instrument and wrote on it in honor of this event: "I am, Stefano Cavaletti, re-made and trimmed in leather these hammers, and also fitted the pedal. I have done this for free, seeing a good ability, which manifests boy Giuseppe Verdi, learning to play this instrument. This I've had enough. Year 1821".

But ten years later Director of the Milan Conservatory scientist rusk Francesco Basilic, panormas in the form of rough peasant boy, "the bear of Busseto", as they called Verdi, refused to accept him among the disciples. "Leave the idea of the Conservatory," he advised, then, Giuseppe Verdi. Now Milan Conservatory named Verdi.

Simple village master in the first shock of the child on the keys was able to see a great talent, which much later was not noticed in the first youthful works of Verdi experienced connoisseur-theorist. As it happened, probably because ordinary people can do faster and more sharp-sighted to guess their singer in the person living next to them.

* In the heart of the story is put drama by Alexander Dumas-the son of the lady of the camellias".
* Small keyboards, stringed instrument, one of the predecessors of the piano.


Great composers

Reprinted from the book N. Kolosova Hello music!" (Moscow, Molodaya Gvardiya, 1964)

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