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GREAT COMPOSERS

GIOACHINO ROSSINI

(1792-1868)

Franz Schubert
Vincenzo Camuccini
Composer, Gioachino Rossini

Fun full of people strolling along the Italian Boulevard in Paris. He was surrounded by friends. There were many of them, he joked and he laughed louder all. He loved to talk, he could talk about everything, and all expressed an interesting thought. He dragged my friends to my home to cook dinner. He was proud of his culinary skills. One of my friends who admired his music, he said, "Wait, I'll try my pie! Then you will know what I'm a genius!"

Carelessly he walked on the Paris boulevards... And at this time on Opera stages around the world triumphantly paraded his creation. Smart resourceful Figaro helped people to make their own happiness, suffered proud Shakespeare's Othello, courageous William tell was raised by the people to fight against their oppressors.

Gioachino was born in the Italian town of Pesaro. It was called "Pisarski a Swan". The poet Heine argued: swans sing before his death, Rossini sang his song in his youth, and then lived a long time in silence. At the age of 38 he wrote 38 operas in the next 38 years, he almost never wrote anything.

Childhood Rossini - road. Razomlev from the heat, he luxuriates in Povoacao covered the sky. A vast blue sky on all sides. When, when you stop noticing the creaking of wheels, it seems that flying, scattered across the sky hands. Pours from the sky, the sun. It splashing in the dust of the road, crashes through the rich foliage of the trees, hiding in the shadows slender white columns. Gioachino sings. Lazy breeze slowly brings his song in the sky to the sun. Paternal horn, like a big gold ear emerged from the cloth of the cover and moves beside the boy, listening to his song. He has a wonderful voice, thin ears, he could sing without getting tired, but this wagon... She swayed and Gioachino falls asleep.

The road tear fair. Tysjacheletia the crowd, a motley boiling clothes, colorful piles of goods. Hearing devour every salutary laughter, fun, hassle, shouts of vendors, monotonous mumbling way in the crowd monk, verse nemokama peasant songs. And all this moving around, rushing past pulls. Where? Well, of course, to this building is a long, not very kazetomo, but... magic.

The theatre!.. From behind the scenes of Gioachino sees his father sitting in the orchestra with his horn, on the stage - mother, agitated, beautiful, and next tenor, Joker and Joker (yesterday on the road, he climbed into the wagon to Joaquino, and together they devoured Golden tinged smoky dust grapes). Is this the unfortunate heroine is his mother? Does he rode in a wagon with this Prince? This castle could not be drawn on the canvas, which was lying yesterday in the cart! This is a fairy tale, it is a sleepless night.

And in the morning his mother led him into the wagon, and he fell and fell asleep, not hearing itinerant Opera troupe was trehalase further. Sinigalia, Fermo, forlì - the names of the towns remained in memory as dreams on the roads. Gioachino Rossini was asleep and didn't feel like his talent sucks, absorbs impressions of the day: cheerful murmur of the crowd, the motif of simple songs, magic theatre, and the gold poured everywhere the sun, and carved green sheet, printed on blue of the sky.

...Rossini entered not - broke into the music! In 1806 Gioachino was fourteen, he was accompanist, conductor, choirmaster of the Opera company, was going to go to school, to seriously study the theory of the composition; in the same year he was presented with the honorary title of member of the Philharmonic Academy of Bologna. Opera he started writing two years later.

Was fond of saying that Rossini lazy. A good "lazy"! In 1812 he wrote five operas! For 1813 - four, among them "Tancredi" and "Italian in Algiers", which made the name of Rossini's famous throughout Italy. Arias from "Tancredi" sang all the gondoliers on the streets-the canals of Venice and the princes in their palaces. Even in a courtroom, says the French writer Stendhal, the judges had to call for silence of the audience, who sang arias by Rossini.

Glory Rossini helped his time. Italy was enslaved Napoleonic France. The people have suffered under foreign yoke. Rossini was independent by nature Italian. In his operas lived in Italy - talkative and fire, as Tarantella, gentle and thoughtful, as the song of the Venetian gondolier. In heroes of the operas of Rossini listeners felt his contemporaries. German poet, Heine wrote: "Poor enslaved Italy it is forbidden to speak, and she could only music can convey feelings of my heart."

In 1815 Rossini wrote vysokopetrovsky "the Anthem of independence". In the same 1815 the people of Another country - Russia celebrated the triumph of his independence, his victory over the armies of Napoleon; and Rossini, freedom-loving Rossini, created the cantata "Aurora", which used the melody of the Russian folk song "Oh, what a fuss" (then this song sounded again in the final of "the Barber of Seville"). The cantata "Aurora" the composer dedicated to E. I. Kutuzova, the widow of the great commander.

...Hearing the name Rossini, first of all we recall "the Barber of Seville". Almost a century and a half living this beautiful creature, and a long life still ahead of him.

Why? Why such longevity fell witty playful Opera, which boils down to the fact that the Barber of Seville Figaro breaks new tricks wealthy guardian and his friend, crafty monk don Basilio and helps the two lovers to get married?

Perhaps the most important is the music? Yes, the music is beautiful. It all Rossini, melodic, sparkling, cheerful. But not only music...

France. The end of the XVIII century. All in suspense. Like the scent of spring filled the air with ideas and trends of the close of the revolution. At this time, the great French playwright Beaumarchais and wrote his Comedy "the Barber of Seville".

"Look, " as if exclaims his Comedy of Beaumarchais, is my hero Figaro is not a king, not a count, not a great commander. He's not even a nobleman, as a simple man of the people. But he's smarter, bolder, nakhodchivy your kings and counts. He knows how to achieve what they cannot. So let's appreciate people not on the title, not the rich camisole and mind and abilities, which are not given together with a noble title.

J. Rossini. The Figaro's Cavatina from the Opera "the Barber of Seville".
Performs Muslim Magomayev

The Comedy of Beaumarchais affirms the right of the common man contrary to the rights of the lords. So her and understood in Italy.

Opera was bold: her hero -- a man of the people, Thinking, courageous, beats the old world is mean and petty rich, greedy liar-monk, without him helpless boy is even the "Almighty" graph.

Together with virtuoso arias and graceful recitations of the audience picked up and the usual Tarantella, and a familiar street ladder, and folk dance.

The meaning of "the Barber of Seville" perfectly understood and power. No wonder in one of the documents of the secret police said: "we Know how much infected by the revolutionary ideas of the famous composer Rossini..."

The composer has managed his Opera about very serious things to say fun. Remember Aria monk don Basilio about the power of slander, which you can destroy in the "General opinion" of an honest man? One hundred and fifty years ago for the first time sang this Aria of don Basilio. But is transferred to the light the people who are trying to get their lies and hypocrisy? And our contemporary, listening to "the Barber of Seville", not only enjoy music, but also in its own experiences everything that happens on stage.

Rosina's Aria from the Opera Rigoletto Rossini's "the Barber of Seville"
Takes Yekaterina Savinova

 

The first performance of "the Barber of Seville" was unsuccessful. Aristocratic "experts" art is not appreciated or did not want to appreciate the great works of Rossini. On the second play sorry composer did not go. But on the second play of the hall was filled regular listeners, and they paid tribute to their Gioachino. After the submission of hundreds of people with flaming torches went to the house Rossini to greet him. Bright lights lit up the night city. People didn't want to live on the dark streets!
Create as many Barbers," he asked Beethoven visited him Rossini.

In 1824 Rossini moved to Paris. Changed the place of residence has changed and creativity. The composer felt drawn to the music of the heroic, to the image of great passions, serious and deep feelings. "Lazy" Rossini was not too lazy to learn again. The composer reworked some old works much having deepened their musical content, and then, without losing naitou glory "Europe minion", as it is called Pushkin, began to write a new Opera.

The top creative Rossini heroic genre - his last Opera "William tell". It is a passionate story about the struggle of the Swiss people for the liberation of their homeland.

There are no parables. With Opera is direct, open story about people's destinies. Mass folk scene, glassy hero is a severe and proud leader of the highlanders, courageous and dignified music as embodying the will of the people, who are ready to sacrifice everything in the name of freedom, as it's not like graceful lace fabric of the Barber of Seville!

"William tell" was created on the eve of the French revolution of 1830. People were preparing for street fighting. The composer has blessed his victory.

After the "William tell" by Rossini almost nothing has been written. But was never forgotten.

And remember we are not carefree person, who loved to wander through the Paris boulevards, joking with friends and treat them to a paste. We remember the great composer, Svobodova, the Creator of magical melodies, the voice of which is itself a Sunny Italy.


Great composers

Reprinted from the book N. Kolosova Hello music!" (Moscow, Molodaya Gvardiya, 1964)

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