on may 7, 1824 in Vienna theater Certerror" first performed Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. The composer was at the conductor's stand and waving her hands. He no longer could control the orchestra, because he was deaf. Actually conducted another bandmaster, who was two steps away from Beethoven.
Ninth, the last Symphony of Beethoven was the result of his work. In it, he revealed his thoughts about life, about the ways of mankind, this Symphony going from the life of the composer turned to the descendants, to us. Therefore he could not be on stage, he himself had to present their creation to the audience.
Like all human history unfolded before the audience. Another terrible dark forces, even gloomy sky. But already thundering storm. Humanity fights. Urgent dawn. The sun is not yet visible, but he guessed over the horizon. First thin bright lights, in front of which depart leaden clouds, then zalewska in the full extent of the sky band.
The motto of the life and works of Beethoven: "Through struggle to victory!" This means; we must fight to win. This means: the one who fights.
The tension of hard struggle in the Symphony is replaced by a deep meditation. It is disturbing, then concentrated and calm, but all the time looking, calling ahead. Just humanity, preparing for new battles for happiness, recalls, brought forth the result of the past, tries to look into the future. And composer bold, confident brush paints it bright future - creates the famous finale of the Ninth Symphony. For that Beethoven was not enough alone music. He drew the word. For the first time with the orchestra has performed in Symphony chorus and soloists. ...Rattle "fanfare horror" (as they called them German composer R. Wagner), Recalling a recent battles. But in response dealt confident human voice: "O brothers! Quite sadness! We will sing hymns boundless fun and bright, bright joy!" "Joy!" as if on behalf of all mankind choir responds to this call. Ode "To joy!" the great German poet Friedrich Schiller graduated from Beethoven his Ninth Symphony. The sun, huge sun rises on a clean sky. "Embrace, millions!" declares fine Here is the future! In a fraternal embrace all people on earth, desirous of peace, freedom and happiness.
The audience immediately understood its revolutionary spirit, in a clear musical images read the intentions of its Creator. Russian composer Anton Rubinstein wrote: "I don't believe that this last part is "ode to joy, considering it an ode to freedom. They say that Schiller on-demand censorship had to replace freedom with the word joy, and that Beethoven knew it, I'm quite sure. Joy is not acquired, it comes, and it is, but freedom must be purchased..."
Ludwig van Beethoven. Ode "To joy" from Symphony No. 9
When finished with the performance of the Ninth Symphony, applause, it seemed, would split the walls of the theatre. Haven't heard one Beethoven. Lowering his head, he stood with his back to the audience from his conductor's stand. Singer Caroline Unger took his hand and turned my face to the audience. Beethoven welcomed five standing ovations, while even the Emperor was supposed to salute three times. To stop a dangerous violation of the ceremony, police officials ordered the students to leave.
Friends brought home Beethoven, exhausted, broken. The disease had taken its toll. He staggered and almost fell. Friends picked him up and laid her on the sofa. He lay quietly, eyes closed, without changing his position. Friends decided that he was asleep, he left.
Maybe he really asleep? But why was not a bottomless hollow emptiness, no whimsical visions? Clear, detail-known pictures pervaded. Tangible in the colors and sounds of life passed before him. His life.
...Ludwig woke in the night, led to the harpsichord. He could not reach the instrument, stood before him on the bench. The father was drunk, and the friends of the father too drunk. They shouted; "Play!" Ludwig played. In short slip stood, stepping barefoot on a bench at the harpsichord. Froze. It was called the music lesson. Sometimes this lesson lasted until morning. Another would have hated the music. In Ludwig was born hostility to the father. Court theorist Johann van Beethoven, degraded, leading time in drinking bouts, wanted to make her son a new "miracle", "second Mozart". Let the boy gives concerts and brings money! "Second Mozart" failed: Cologne princes, electors, did not appreciate the little musician and was in no hurry to become his patrons. Father scolded electors, even more drunk and they squandered the last. Ludwig studied music, tried to compose himself. As a boy he learned to play the harpsichord and the organ, the violin, the viola and flute.
Ludwig loved his mother. Her name was Magdalena. She worked from morning till night, trying at least something like to feed the family. Poverty, work and consumption sooner bent it. She almost never laughed. Because too rarely knew joy. Only once a year... every year, on the day of the birthday of the mother, everything in the house was transformed. The room was cleaned flowers and greenery. Mother solemnly seated under a specially constructed canopy. Friends of my father from the court chapel was with his tools. In the gift of the mother they brought to the music. Songs and overtures filled the room, out of the window. Outside the Windows on the street was a gathering place for neighbors. For them, music was also a gift. Stayed late. After dinner, tipsy guests danced. Not to angry with other tenants of the house, removed the shoes and danced in his socks.
Eleven years later he went to work - was a substitute organist in the Church. Fourteen - got a job as an organist at the princely court. He was given a ceremonial clothes: green coat with cords, silk stockings, shoes with buckles, embroidered with gold vest, hat, sword. This outfit did not go to him.
At Ludwig was free swinging gait boys, accustomed to run on the city outskirts and walk in overgrown grass and shrubs Bank of the Rhine. But had to get into a lush white collar, thick tousled hair to pull the wig, and on top of another to hoist the front had to serve. For him, Ludwig, money now lived family. This money is also not enough. He ran to give music lessons in the homes of wealthy citizens. In free time between rehearsals, concerts and lessons he wrote. The first known Beethoven - variations for piano on the theme of the March - created them in twelve years.
It turns out that we need to know much to write music. Adjusting with suppressed fury stupid, naughty fingers of rich students, he dreamed of the moment when, finally, there will be one and will to learn. When you open covered with notes pages Bach and Handel, Haydn and Mozart, when he will compose the music.
In 1787, when Beethoven was seventeen years old, he had saved a little money, took their music and went on a long journey in Vienna, Mozart, whose sentence he would have accepted without hesitation.
It was spring. Tender greens gardens, swaying, was repeated in the Danube. Mozart was tired face. He worked a lot. Wrote "Don Juan". In the next room someone was talking, obviously, the composer were still visitors. Mozart eagerly inquired: what wants from his young visitor. Frowned, but began to listen. When Ludwig inspired to improvise on a given theme, listened very carefully and seriously. Beethoven had finished and stood, head down, waiting for the verdict. It was very quiet. Mozart quick inaudible step came to the door in the next room and said to those who were there: "Pay attention to this guy. He will force everyone to talk about themselves".
Beethoven wanted to be next to Mozart, to learn from him. But suddenly a message came - ill mother. He rushed home, in Bonn. The mother died in his arms. Now all family concerns fell on the head of Ludwig. It was necessary to maintain and educate his brothers, lead litigation with his father, who still drank and did not want to give their children Thaler. And I had to work, work, work. After all, Mozart himself said to him: "You have chosen the right path!"
Again and forever - Beethoven arrived in Vienna in November 1792. The year before he died tridtsatipjatiletnego Mozart. Beethoven went to sixty-year-old Haydn. Stagecoach rolled through the streets of the Imperial capital, which was both the capital of music. This city had to conquer. Beethoven began to take lessons from Haydn.
Beethoven arrived in Vienna in the terrible and glorious time. Over Europe bright torch burning flames of the French revolution. It began in glorious July day in 1789, when the insurgent people stormed the fortress-prison of the Bastille. The masses overthrew the past for the future. The word "revolution" was heard in the speeches of Robespierre, it was called the battle from the pages of "Friend of the people" was the title of the newspaper, which was published Marat. Almost all European rulers, fearing for his throne, declared war on revolutionary France. But not so easy to defeat a people fighting for freedom. In the autumn of 1792, the revolutionary army inflicted a battle to the invaders, and she moved forward.
People greedily breathed in new, fresh air and felt with every breath poured by force of arms, as a bold new thoughts excite the head. Not all took up arms, but everyone understood that it is possible to take. Hundreds of miles from France wrote revolutionary poems, sang revolutionary songs, the reflections of the revolution was lit up stage.
Sharp, awkward, not wanting to admit etiquette, Beethoven was in the Grand salons, titled students admired his music, feared it, fawned before him. They felt that this did not look like anyone composer of power, the future. Beethoven answered them independence, hostility. At the request of the Empress, be it said to the footman: "Tell that busy. When the Prince Lichnowsky tried to force him to play, almost smashed noble friend the head with a chair. The composer wrote the Lichnowsky: "Prince! What you are, you have the chance of birth. What I am, I owe to yourself. Princes was and will be thousands, Beethoven - only one".
"Shakespeare masses called Beethoven's Russian critic centuries Stasov. The composer was worried about the fate of the people. And to solve these fate in the struggle. The struggle of the hero for the freedom and happiness of the people is the content of the Third Symphony.
...Hard, hard fight. Hostile forces then retreat, desperately resist, is applied in response to impact. But they can stop those fighting in the name of freedom and justice. Again the battle, fierce, resolute. And finally, victory! Freeze the last bursts of battle. Music increasingly, more joyful. Suddenly, a mournful funeral March. A high price has won a victory. In a severe battle was lost hero; the winning nation pays him homage. But not the funeral procession ended Beethoven Symphony. National leader fell for the future, for life. And life, eternal, invincible, sings music. Complete Symphony paintings grandiose folk festival. Jubilant winners, in a difficult struggle pulled out his happiness.
Ludwig van Beethoven. Symphony No. 3 in e flat major "Heroic".
Part 4 (Final)
First Beethoven called the Symphony "Bonaparte". It seemed to him that Napoleon would become a hero of the revolutionary people, lead him to liberation. The Symphony was almost finished, when Beethoven learned that Napoleon had declared himself Emperor. "Now he will be stomped on by all human rights, to follow only their ambition, angrily cried the composer. He will put himself above all others and become a tyrant!" Beethoven grabbed the title sheet symfony, tore it from top to bottom, threw it on the floor. On a blank sheet of music paper wrote new name: "Heroic Symphony". The Emperor could not be the hero of the Third Symphony. Its hero is the people.
Beethoven wrote nine symphonies, five concertos for piano and orchestra, a violin Concerto, Opera, ballet, overtures, oratorios, fantasy, songs, chamber works, among them thirty-two piano sonatas. His works can not be divided into "large" and "small". Both are distinguished by the depth of conception, rebellious spirit, strength, courage. In every creature he generously put his heart, his mind, his attitude toward life.
Ludwig van Beethoven. Symphony No. 5. Part 1
Beethoven piano sonatas can be called small symphonies. In them the same impulse, the same revolutionary passion, the same invitation to fight. Play at least the first line of the Sonata "Appassionata".
Ludwig van Beethoven. Sonata No. 23 "Appassionata".
Part 1. Allegro assai
Beethoven said that Sonata "Appassionata" is inspired by the dramatic work of Shakespeare's "the Tempest". But it's not musical illustrations for the play. Faith in man, is able to break the cycle and find the path to happiness pervade the "Appassionata". The name itself sonatas means in translation from Italian passionate, inspired. This music calls for
feat. No wonder its so loved Lenin. "Amazing, superhuman music", he said about the "Appassionata".
Next to stormy "Appassionata" is not inferior to her from lastnosti "moonlight Sonata". "Moonlight Sonata" is a complex interweaving of various human emotions: bitterness of loneliness memories, sometimes sad, sometimes bright, sometimes the other, as if fused together (as in Pushkin: "my Sorrow is light"), doubts, dreams, faith in the future, gust.
Ludwig van Beethoven. Sonata No. 14 for piano "moon".
Part 1 - Adagio sostenuto
The faith of Beethoven's life, in the future, in a striking victory. It is difficult to find a man, whom fate would have caused such an accurate and devastating blow. To understand the full measure of unhappiness deaf composer, it is possible to compare to imagine blinded painter or lost legs of a runner. But Beethoven performed a miracle. He continued to compose music. And what! Beethoven's music! Were grim Duma, mental anguish sometimes despair. But Beethoven did not give up. He struggled with deafness that created the sounds. In the most difficult times of illness the composer wrote in his will: if death comes before he will fully reveal themselves in art, he finds her prejdevremennoi. "I want to seize the fate of the throat, just when bending me to the ground she certainly will not succeed!" "Through struggle to victory!" Ill test confirmed the motto throughout his life He fought and won. Won because they fought.
Its motto composer unusually clearly expressed in the Five symphonies. Through its first part is typical mo against. "Thus fate knocks at the door," explained Beethoven And again the picture of intense fighting with a tragic fate, which imposed on people in the name of the light of destiny, a dream which always dwells in them, they want Wyko it for themselves. Solemn triumphal finale shows, persons: ended the fight. People do their destiny!
...People do their destiny! "said Beethoven, opening his eyes. He was lying on the sofa dressed. The room is empty. See, friends long gone home. From the window, pulled the morning coolness. In early may the dawn of the gilded sky. Beth Hoven stood up, walked over to the piano. One finger reiterated the theme of the finale of the Ninth - "Embrace millions". Loudly chuckled, remembering the success of the Symphony. Before my eyes stood a crowded room and in the middle of the empty Imperial Lodge. Once the Emperor has spoken, that he needed not geniuses, and faithful subjects. Beethoven he could not be attributed to the number of loyal subjects Deafness of Beethoven to a certain extent preserved for us the content of his conversations with friends and acquaintances. The composer used the so-called "conversational notebooks, in which they could write their questions and remarks. According to these records, you can imagine what was said Beethoven. In notebooks - cautions friends: "don't talk so loud!.. All podslushivaet", "...There is a spy..." And even: "You will die on the scaffold. Too cautious man, who after the death of the composer was "spoken notebooks, destroyed more than half of them. He said the books were too many "unbridled attacks on higher power". If the "higher power" was not afraid of public opinion, they would have arrested Beethoven. He could die if not on the scaffold, in prison.
But the composer was too well known and too deeply love. The Emperor, the ruler over his subjects, was not power over Beethoven. Beethoven belonged to all mankind. Empty bed in the house Certerror" blackened hole, fringed with gold. But no one turned around to look at her. All eyes were on the stage and welcomed Beethoven. The Emperor came to Beethoven in the elegant hall of the theater. But so many people - friends, acquaintances and strangers, was walking up a steep, poorly lit stairs in Beethoven's apartment! Often he grumbled: "Interfere with the work!" But his soul was satisfied. He loved people. And people understood it, not listening to sweet talk, which is so easy to hide the emptiness, and music, in which his heart beat. Beethoven was straight to the field, sometimes rough, happened unfair. He was not very kind. He was friendly. Best of all, it felt talented composers of the day.
When Beethoven died, suddenly the storm broke. Storm in March! With the snow storm, lightning, thunder. And suddenly unusual had happened. The dying composer opened his eyes, sat up, and his fist threatened sky. The moment saved him from death, and he still believed that we can't give up. Only through struggle to victory!
He won again! Death did not come. It's immortality, He continues to win. Every year more and more people are building a bright, beautiful future, kotoooy predicted and which was the name of humanity Ludwig van Beethoven.