A long time ago, almost four hundred years ago, in one of the small medieval German towns in Thuringia lived a Baker from farmers on behalf of the faith of Bach. He was a poor, hard-working and kind, as it was told of him in the family legend, and he had in his life a great affection music. They say that faith Bach never parted with his favorite instrument, the zither, which skillfully sang folk songs and dances.
This passion for music was passed on from Feith Bach, his sons, grandchildren, great-grandchildren, great-grandchildren. And almost all of them became musicians: offices (teachers of singing), organ, violin, flute, trumpet, Kapellmeister, composers.
In search of work, they went to different cities and spread throughout Germany, and some of them were even outside of his native land. Two hundred years ago in Thuringia Bach musicians was already so much that people began to call Bahami everyone who was involved in music, even those who had their own, different name.
In the genus Bach was not rich and lazy. They are stubborn, painstakingly fought their way in life.
Once a year in the house of one of the most respected in the family Bach gathered all the relatives. On this day, once for the entire year was celebrated all family date and ceremonial events. Each meeting has become a family music festival: audience sang folk songs, which knew a great many, played on different instruments, joked, laughed. So lived the Baja.
In 1685 in a small thorington town of Eisenach was born Johann Sebastian Bach - the Bach, which was destined to become a great composer in the world.
As all of the Baja, Johann Sebastian was modest, hardworking, proud. Like everyone else, passionately loved music and she gave before the end of their strength. His life was in labor, hardship and poverty.
In those days musicians in Germany were forced and could serve either from the rich, noble lords, or in churches. In ten years, Johann Sebastian became an orphan and was forced himself to take care of earnings. Older brother Christopher, who after the death of his parents in the education of Sebastian, served as a music teacher in the Church school. Only it seriously and taught Sebastian music. An educated man, but in the art of petty and dry meticulous, Christoph was not appreciated at the younger brother's extraordinary musical talent. Christoph banned Sebastian to take up a collection of works by famous composers, considering that this boy to anything. Then Sebastian was at night secretly to rewrite it in your journal notes. The work lasted almost six months. The boy had ruined his sight, but was happy that the case is coming to an end. And suddenly it happened irreparable - Christoph accidentally caught Sebastian for night work. No pleas and pleas of the boy did not soften the hard teacher: he took the notebook, and Bach was able to see only many years later, after the death of his brother.
Fifteen years, went to school, Sebastian already entered the service. He had a beautiful voice, he brilliantly played the violin, organ and harpsichord, and he gladly accepted a senior chorister at the Abbey school in the city of Lydenburg.
Now Sebastian was free from the teachings of brother. At the monastery he found a great library, where I found many interesting manuscripts and works of the most prominent composers of the time. The dream has come true - the young man was studying music. Library ladenburger monastery was the first music University of Bach. No one was in charge of his education. The music itself was a teacher and educator of his talent.
After graduating from the Lyceum, Bach had the right to enter the University. But could he be thinking about the doctrine, when he has nothing to live? He tried to find the service povygodnee.
First he willingly took for him was the glory of a skilled organist and violinist. However, Bach did not know how to please ecclesiastical superiors, he was not wealthy patrons, and because he often did not get along with the Ministers of the Church. In addition, the compositions of the Bach were so vibrant that they often were similar to folk songs, and not on Church music.
I. S. Bach "Joke" (Badinerie from orchestral Suite No. 2)
Not wiwas with clergy, Bach moved from one place to another, moved from town to town, and was on a secular service. But to achieve that it would meet, never could. However, none of the trials of life are not repaid in the composer eternal flame of creativity.
Despite the fact that he had to write mostly Church music, the works of Bach were not cold and austere, as if deprived of worldly worries and joys. They passed a variety of human feelings. A wise artist, Bach created not just a background for prayers and accompaniment for hymns, as reflected in his work a deep meditation on critical life issues. Hearing in the temple Bach, people could not already in the habit of dealing with memorized words to an unknown God - they had started to think the Music caused them their earthly thoughts about something important and secret, awakened experience - clean, bright, uplifting, but is earthly.
I. S. Bach. Air (from Orchestral Suite No. 3 in d major)
Bach did almost all well-known in his time musical genres. He wrote for organ, orchestra, choir, piano. You know more than five hundred of his works. Who studies at the school of music, always plays the preludes and fugues of Bach. This so-called polyphonic music. In her one voice as if talking to others, argues, proves. Then they intertwine and sound together.
During the life of the Bach were printed only a few of his works. Many and still not found.
Died Bach in poverty. Contemporaries did not know that the works of skilled Church organist and court musician was a great discovery in music.
Only after his death, Bach began to appear in print some of his works, printed works of the composer's works. It's students and admirers Sebastian Bach made sure that people did not forget his creations.
And then the day came when Bach's music has found a new life. It was in 1829 in Berlin. Great German musician, composer Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, hot proponent of the music of Bach, has prepared and performed with the Berlin singing Academy one of the most difficult and the most outstanding works of Bach's "St. Matthew Passion".
From this day on, the music of Bach began his winning streak in all countries of the world. And in Russia Bach was a lot of admirers and friends. The great Glinka knew the memory of many of his works, studied them, admired them. In 1834 released in Russia a Century novel Odoevsky "Sebastian Bach". "For me, " wrote Odoevsky, Bach was almost the first school musical book, which most of it I knew by heart". Pushkin's friend and Glinka, Odoevsky was an outstanding writer and scholar and musicologist of his time.
The profound depth of thought about the inexhaustible variety of forms, "on the infinite melody, and harmony, vitality and ethnic music of Bach hotly wrote the famous Russian composer and music critic A. Serov.
Mussorgsky, Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov, Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninov, they all appreciated the music of Bach deep sincerity, warmth, simplicity, humanity, national identity.
In 1850 at home Bach formed the Bach society. There were enthusiasts who, despite lack of funds and other difficulties, decided to release the complete works of Bach. In 1900 came the last, the 46th volume of his works.
In our days, the music of Bach is executed very often. The name of Bach we say next to the names of the greatest and most popular composers of the past.
"Not Stream! * The sea was supposed to be his name..." - said about Bach Beethoven.
I. S. Bach. Toccata and Fugue in d minor
------------------------------------ * Bach - German "stream".