(Squad Passeriformes, Family Corvidae Family, Genus Raven)
Rooks are very similar to the black crows, differing from them in appearance only a few great elegance of structure and fine straight beak with light Boskovice (mandible). Young rooks in the base of the beak grow feathers, which later fall out. Black plumage rook has a blue-purple sheen. Sexual dimorphism is not pronounced either in color or in size.
The natural sounds of the rooks in the case of a welcome neighbor, reminiscent of the "Kah" or "Collapse". In the case of aggression, the sound turning into a long cry of "Screeeeech". In marriage the spring rooks are exchanged quiet cooing long sounds. The Chicks to leave the nest screaming and crying, and the young rooks make cheerful ringing "Rrrah".
Like other representatives of the "black tribe, the crow is omnivorous. Rooks with equal pleasure absorb worms, eggs and nestlings of songbirds, the contents of urban waste, seeds and fruits of plants. But still their favorite food rook - "meat", mainly insects. Rooks often congregate in places of mass reproduction of pests. These birds love to follow tractors and mowers, looking for insects in a plowed the ground or crop. The destruction of insects (may beetle and its larvae, bugs-turtles, bugs-kusek, beet weevils, wireworms, the larvae of beetles click beetles) and eating small rodents rooks bring huge benefits to agriculture. However, there is from them and some harm: they peck the seeds of agricultural crops, and in the period of ripening melons damage watermelons and melons. Like to eat earthworms. But all good rooks bring much more than harm. In England, destroying the rooks in some areas got there persistent crop failures.
Rooks are often combined with daws in the joint with flocks of flying during the day to feed in the surrounding fields and parks.
One of the essential differences rook from our other corvids, leading a sedentary lifestyle or committing autumn-winter movements within the breeding range that rook for the Northern areas of its habitat for a migratory bird.
This is the early bird returning from wintering grounds to their homeland. No wonder you often hear the expression - rooks spring opened. Our rooks, living in the middle lane, appear in spring between 4 and 23 March. Mass arrival occurs ten days after the appearance of advanced.
However, in the conduct and character of these birds over the last decade things have changed, and more and more birds to remain for the winter in the nesting areas. In this harsh time, they are concentrated around towns and cities where it is easier for them to live near garbage dumps or picking up the spilled grain. Often at this time, the rooks join the flocks of crows and jackdaws, although the ravens as the stronger often try to Rob rooks found their food. The arrival of rooks is marked by the appearance of birds in the first spring thaw and near obcasy roads.
Within a few days after arrival, the rooks appear on Gracanica, though not hurry to begin to repair the old housing. They will start almost a month after arrival. Colonial nesting is also a significant difference rooks from a single nesting crows and ravens. The number of nests in a colony of rooks varies from 10-15 up to 300 or more. Nests are usually built on high trees, not less than 6 meters from the ground, but often much higher. However, in places where tall trees are few, it is necessary for them to settle in low landings. In the steppe areas sometimes arrange nests on poles of power lines or Telegraph poles.
Rooks colonies are very durable, and if birds are not too much bother, can survive for many years. The renovation of old and construction of new nests of rooks start about a month after arrival. Collect material for nests both birds, but builds predominantly female. During construction of nests frequent quarrels between the "families" because of the theft of raw materials.
Buckwheat lays 3-9 eggs. They have grayish-green shell in invisible speckles. Incubation is carried out by the mother and lasts for 16-19 days. The future father is required to feed the wife in this period. After hatching Chicks from eggs both parents involved in their feeding. Months later, the babies fledge, although for some time remain very dependent on older birds. In further dependence is reduced, and the young people form their groups inside the prison in order to acquire already own families.
Social behavior of rooks in nature is quite interesting. They are very sociable among themselves, prefer to live in large colonies, on the night occupying trees in parks to sleep. In the daytime rooks love to have fun, swinging on branches and passing each other a variety of items, sometimes playing "catch-up" with the aim to take something from "escaping". Spring for rooks typical air pirouettes order to hit the half aerobatics. Often couples sitting side by side and gently COO fluffing fan tails, and roles are distributed not according to sex: it seems that the rooks have achieved gender equality in matters of courtship.
Sexual maturity in rooks comes to the end of the second year of life. In this age and form monogamous pairs remaining together for years, often until the end of the life of one of the partners.
Although rooks, living in the wild, was not observed ability to use tools in the laboratory has been able to ensure that the birds are quite cleverly used as a hook for getting Goodies from the narrow tubes bent wire. In addition, the rooks were so smart, that I guessed to plug the drain hole of the enclosure to arrange a pool for unauthorized swimming.
The voice of the rook:
Please tell me who can! We are now frost -20, -23 degrees. On the window of a private house froze rook. Not injured, just froze. On the bill there is the feathers a little. Put him in a cage. Eat, drink. Given into the hands, when we clean the cage. Whether its Spustit at will in frost or wait until warming? Themselves to leave.
I have all winter watching one Graham that appears on ovolkova Omsk. Yesterday flew from one topala to another in the axils of branches zaporoshena snow,found someone prepratory food and endured,burying in the snow in another mastev first see rook in 40 degree morozini 78 years.