(Squad Passerine, The Suborder Of The Singers, The Family Of Sincewe)
Tit big (highway) is widely distributed. In areas developed by man, it is several times more powerful than other kinds Tits on the number of individuals.
The dorsal side Tits big yellowish-green underparts are yellow with a broad black stripe along his chest and belly. The upper side of the head, sides of neck, throat and the adjacent part of the goiter is shiny black with a bluish steel sheen, sides of the head white. Wing grayish-blue color with pale transverse band. The tail is blackish with a bluish tinge. Great tit is one of the largest representatives of the family: its body length 130-165 mm, weight about 20,
The highway is common in deciduous forests, and climbs up to the upper border of the forest; in uremnykh thickets along rivers and reservoirs; groves, parks and gardens almost all of Europe (except the North), in Asia (except for its Northern regions, Kamchatka, as well as the mountainous areas of Central Asia).
Tit - resident, and only partially she roams. Spring returns to breeding grounds in the second half of February or early March. At this time the males are singing monotonous, but not devoid of pleasure ringing song. Words can Express it as duplicate "pili-pili-pili...". This bird begins to sing one of the first, therefore, say that the song Tits brings spring.
The great tit singing can be heard at any time of the year except in late autumn and early winter. Spring singing begins in early January, sometimes even at the end of December. Usually the first to start singing birds, wintering around areas of human habitation. Intense singing starts from March and lasts until the second half of may. In the second half of June - beginning of July there is a new upsurge of activity of singing associated with the second breeding cycle. Autumn singing begins in August, increased in mid-September and ends in Pervak decade of October.
Settle Tits in a variety of areas of forest, but they prefer to nest still in deciduous forests. The nest is built in the hollows of woodpeckers, rarely in rotten wood of a tree on the place of fallen bitch, exfoliating bark, in cracks of the wooden buildings, in old nests of squirrels, among the thick boughs and branches, forming the skeleton of the old nests of birds of prey, and other hidden places, usually at a height of 2-6 m above the ground.
Around areas of human habitation great tit can make nests in the most unexpected places. There are known cases of nesting of these birds in a cast iron railing, pipe pump, pillars, street lighting, hollow metal pipe railings, mailboxes, coverings for walls, mailboxes, inside the barrels of guns, artillery, and even the skull of a camel! And, of course, the highway willingly live in nests made by man.
This nesting to build is not difficult. A reduced copy of the birdhouse (called by analogy the sinichnik) has the following dimensions: bottom of 10 x 10 cm,one with a diameter of 4-4,5 cm at a distance of 20 cm from the bottom. The lid should be tightly fitted and in any case has no right to leak. It is impossible to grind the inner surface sinichnik - it should be enough ribbed in order for it to catch claws. Sometimes even specially cut transverse horizontal groove axe. Cracks in the base area have no meaning: birds will zakonodatel the right place (leave the birds well at least any fun). Hang sinichnik follows from the South-Southeast side of the tree on a fairly open place. It makes no sense to hang a lot of houses in one place. It is enough to keep a distance of 50 meters between titmousers to the bird family was not in conflict with each other.
And another thing important. In such house can settle, of course, not only great Tits, but many other small hole-nesting birds, such as flycatchers. If you want to attract big Tits, keep in mind that these birds do not live in houses with old nests. Autumn sinichnik must be removed and cleaned, and again in spring to hang in place.
Nest is built by both birds of the pair within 4-7 days. Nest is usually made of thin twigs, rootlets, dry stems of grass, moss, lichens, and plant down, feathers, scraps of wool, silk cocoons and webs spiders and insects. In urban settings in the material of the nests are often found wool, wool, thread, grass, feathers. Lined with horsehair, soft fur of various animals and soft feathers.
Eggs Tits white, slightly shiny with a large number of reddish-brown spots scattered on their surface. Incubates them only female for 13-14 days. Male only occasionally brings her food.
Hatched Chicks the first 3 to 5 days of life feeds exclusively male, female heats Chicks. Nestlings remain in the nest 19 - 21 days; parents feeding them, making the day about 400 arrivals with food to the nest. The first day or two after hatching, the Chicks are given the juice of crushed adult bird insects; the Chicks at the age of 2-5 days - small spiders and caterpillars. Then the food in Chicks becomes more diverse: the parents bring them, except spiders and caterpillars, butterflies, flies, small beetles. Just before departure from the nest, the Chicks start to get rougher food similar to that which consume adult birds. As a mineral feed the parents give the Chicks the ground egg shells, shells of terrestrial molluscs.
At the end of summer family flocks big Tits merged with the families of other species of Tits and goldcrests, individuals treecreepers, nuthatches and other birds. In such flocks at the beginning of winter, usually there are 30 - 50 individuals, which are widely roam wherever there are trees and shrubs. With snow most of the Tits migrate to the South, and the remaining wintering individuals move to the outskirts of settlements.
During late spring and summer big Tits gathering food solely on deciduous trees; autumn and winter visit and conifers, visiting the underbrush, undergrowth, often rooted in herbage and litter, and in the winter snow. Great tit - omnivorous bird. In the summer the basis of its food consists of eggs, caterpillars and adult butterflies, beetles, and spiders. Autumn - ramnarine and eggs of butterflies, beetles eaten a little food appear seeds, willingly consumed berries and fruits. In winter the main food are plant seeds and eggs of butterflies and spring - seeds and beetles. Individuals joining a mixed tit flocks, partially fed by stocks made by polecamy, gacchami, crested Tits and nuthatches.
The highway - regular visitors to the feeders. Moreover, these birds themselves insolently with the sunrise begin raids flocks on the balconies of high-rise buildings and loudly shout! Easily reach the 15th floor - an unprecedented feat for Sparrow. Mangers Tits are attracted to the city primarily as nurses. Because Tits are continuing to collect pests even in the winter (their stocks as some other Tits they don't). Eloquently about the problem of finding food in the winter is the fact that in the winters killed up to 90% of all Bolshakov. From hunger, not from the cold! The fact that a hungry bird can easily freeze frosty night. Fed not afraid of any frost.
In winter it is best to feed the birds fat feed: pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, unsalted lard, butter, oatmeal, drenched in animal fat. The simplest feeder traditionally cut from a milk package. But! Start feeding birds, in no event it is impossible for a long time to leave the feeders are empty. Used to get feed birds may die. If the fed started to stop before the end of winter anymore!
Near large cities Tits compete on the feeders in the first place with the sparrows. To get rid of the presence of the latter, you can either use food that sparrows neglect, and Tits have no, or use a special feeder. The food in question is pumpkin and watermelon seeds. System of feeders, it is necessary to consider natural namelast sparrows and acrobatic abilities Bolshakov. The feeder is better to make hanging and then swinging. Sparrows will never sit where there is no "solid earth under your feet. Although, what can we say, they, like any urban birds are very smart and learn quickly. Increasingly found sparrows, not afraid of the hanging feeders have seen enough Tits and learned not to be afraid.
In addition, big Tits pretty often eat Hymenoptera (mostly sawflies), flies and bugs; willingly eat pieces of meat and fat, put their man on feed tables (it is not possible to give the birds salt lard or meat is bad for you!), can eat carrion. However, predatory inclinations big Tits not so great. Among insects in the mass consumed by the great tit, dominated by harmful commercial species such as silkworms, various beetles (weevils, leaf beetles, bugs, aphids. It is also important that Tits are continuing with great intensity to destroy harmful insects and winter, many times reducing their number by the spring.
The voice of big Tits:
Just super . Me in school we had to do a project about the Tit all found on your site. Well
Thanks for the article, found everything I need!
Very interesting! Love sinick. all winter they are fed. Thanks for the article.