Pablo Neruda (pseudonym; the real name of Neftali Ricardo Reyes, Basualto; 1904-1973) is a Chilean poet, diplomat and politician, Senator of the Republic of Chile, member of the Central Committee of the Communist party of Chile. The winner of the International Stalin prize For strengthening peace between Nations" (1953) and the Nobel prize for literature (1971).
Pablo Neruda was born 12 July 1904 in the town of Parral in Central Chile in the family of a railroad employee. A gifted boy began to write poems already in 10 years. In 1920 a young poet published in the journal "Selva Austral" poems, taking the pseudonym Pablo Neruda on behalf of the Czech writer Jan Neruda, to avoid conflict with his father, not which approved his practice literature. Subsequently, this nickname became his official name.
A year later the young poet entered the pedagogical Institute in Santiago. For his poem "the Holiday song", published in the newspaper "Juventud", he received first prize in the competition organized by the Federation of Chilean students.
In 1923 Neruda issued on private saving his first book of poems - "Twilight". The collection was a success, allowing the young poet in the following year to release a lyric book "Twenty love poems and one song of despair". This book brought him great fame in Latin America.
In 1934-1937 Neruda works as a diplomat in Spain. Inspired by the anti-fascist struggle of the Spanish people, in 1937, he published a book of poems "Spain in the heart".
In 1941-1944 Pablo Neruda was a Chilean Consul in Mexico. It was here that he wrote two Songs of love Stalingrad". In 1945, Neruda was elected to the Senate of the Republic of Chile. He soon joined the Communist party of Chile and was awarded the National prize for literature.
For disagreements with the President of Chile gonzález Widely Neruda was stripped of his parliamentary mandate and charged with treason. The poet had to elope to Paris. While in exile, in 1948, he completes the "Universal song" - the Saga of the fate of Latin America.
In the years 1949-1952 Neruda traveled extensively in Europe and Asia, participated in the Movement for peace, have repeatedly visited the USSR. His work varies in the direction lyrics and somewhat grotesque, as for example in the book "Estravagario" (1958).
He was awarded the International Peace prize (1950), the International Lenin prize "For strengthening peace among peoples" (1953), Nobel prize for literature (1971).
In 1969, Pablo Neruda, was nominated by the Communist party of Chile for President, but withdrew his candidacy in favor of socialist Salvador Allende. After the victory of Allende's election in 1970, Neruda was appointed Ambassador to France.
In 1972, Neruda returned to Chile. on September 11, 1973 a military coup to power in Chile came General Augusto Pinochet. Salvador Allende died, many supporters of the party of National unity were killed or arrested. Neruda's house in Santiago was subjected to looting. Neruda died in the hospital of Santa Maria in Santiago on September 23, 1973 (according to one version - killed). His funeral, held at gun point, was the first protest against the Pinochet regime.
In 1973-1974 in Buenos Aires came posthumous editions of eight poetry books Neruda, as well as book of memories "I Confess: I have lived."