Chukovsky Korney Ivanovich (1882-1969) was a Russian writer, poet, translator, literary critic. The present name is Nikolai Vasilyevich Karnaukhov
Born on 19 (31) March 1882 in St. Petersburg. He suffered from what was "illegitimate". Father was Emmanuel Solomonovich, Levenson, and the mother of Corney was in his house as a maid. Father left them, and the mother - Poltava woman Ekaterina Osipovna Karnaukhova - moved to Odessa. There he was given in the gymnasium, but in the fifth grade, he was expelled because of low origin.
To educate ourselves, to learn English language. Since 1901 Chukovsky begins to write articles in Odessa news". In 1903 he was sent by the correspondent in London, where thoroughly acquainted with English literature. Returning to Russia during the revolution of 1905, Chukovsky was captured by revolutionary events, visited the battleship "Potemkin", collaborated in the journal WE Bryusov "Scales", began publishing in St. Petersburg satirical magazine "Signal". After the fourth issue he was arrested for lèse-majesté". Fortunately Korney Ivanovich, he was defended by the famous lawyer Gruzenberg to achieve justification.
In 1906 Korney Ivanovich came in the Finnish town of Kuokkala. Here he lived for about 10 years, brought close acquaintance with the artist Repin and writer Korolenko. He also maintained contacts with N. N. Evreinova, L. N. Andreev, A. I. Kuprin, V. C. Mayakovsky. All of them became characters in his books of memoirs and essays, and home of the manuscript almanac CocaCola, which have left their creative autographs dozens of celebrities - from Repin to A.I. Solzhenitsyn, with time has emerged as a valuable cultural monument. From a combination of words Chukovsky and Kuokkala formed "CocaCola" (invented by Repin - title handwritten comic almanac, which Korney Ivanovich led to the last days of his life.
In 1907 Chukovsky published translations of Walt Whitman. The book became popular, which increased the fame of Chukovsky in the literary environment. Chukovsky was an influential critic, blasted tabloid literature. Sharp articles Chukovsky appeared in periodicals, and then was the book "From Chekhov to the present day" (1908), "Critical stories" (1911), "Faces and masks" (1914), "the Futurists" (1922) and other Chukovsky first Russian researcher "mass culture".
The creative interests of Chukovsky was constantly expanding his work has become increasingly universal, encyclopedic in nature.
Came on Board V.G. Korolenko to the heritage of N.A. Nekrasov, Chukovsky did a lot of textual discoveries, managed to change for the better aesthetic reputation of the poet. His efforts came the first Soviet collection of poems of Nekrasov. The result of his research work was published in 1952 book "Mastery Nekrasova, received the Lenin prize after 10 years. Along the way, Chukovsky studied poetry T.G. Shevchenko, literature 1860-ies, biography and creativity A.P. Chekhov.
Leading at the invitation of M. Gorky children's Department of the publishing house "Sail", Chukovsky and he began to write poetry (then and prose for children. About this time the Korney Ivanovich began a passion for children's literature. In 1916 Chukovsky was a collection of "Tree" and wrote his first tale "Crocodile" (1916).
Work Chukovsky in the field of children's literature naturally led him to the study of child language, the first researcher who he was. This was his real passion - the psyche of children and how they learn it. Published his famous tale "Moidodyr" and "arakanese" (1923), "the Fly buzzing" (1924), "the Ogre" (1925), "Telephone" (1926) - unsurpassed masterpieces of literature for the young", published so far. He recorded his observations of children, for their verbal creativity in the book "Little children" (1928), then received the title "two to five" (1933). "All my other compositions to such an extent obscured by my children's tales, that in the view of many readers I have, but the "Moidodyr" and "Fly-Cocotech", didn't write," he confessed.
Baby poems Chukovsky had been in the Stalin era cruel persecution. The initiator of the harassment began N. K. Krupskaya. Inadequate criticism came from Agnes Barto. Among the editors was even such a term - "chukomina".
In the 1930s, and later Chukovsky a lot of translations and began to write a memoir in which I worked until the end of life. Chukovsky was opened for the Russian reader U. Whitman, R. Kipling, O. Wilde. He translated and M. TWAIN, , Chesterton, O. Henry, A. Doyle, U. Shakespeare wrote for children retelling of the works of D. Defoe, RE Raspe, J. Greenwood.
In 1957 the Chukovsky was awarded the degree of doctor of philological Sciences in 1962 honorary doctorate of literature from Oxford University. As a linguist Chukovsky wrote a witty and spirited book about the Russian language Live as life" (1962), strongly against bureaucratic stamps, the so-called "kancelaria". As a translator Chukovsky was engaged in translation theory, creating one of the most respected in this field books - "High art" (1968).
In the 1960-ies K. Chukovsky also started retelling of the Bible for children. For this project, it has attracted writers and writers, and carefully edited their work. The project itself was very difficult, due to anti-religious attitude of the Soviet government. The book entitled "the tower of Babel and other ancient tales" was published in the publishing house "Children's literature" in 1968. However, the whole edition was destroyed by the authorities. First book edition, available to the reader, took place in 1990.
Died Korney Ivanovich Chukovsky, October 28, 1969 from viral hepatitis. At the dacha in Peredelkino, where he lived most of my life, now operates the Museum.