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DANIIL KHARMS

Daniil Kharms

Daniil Ivanovich Usachev (1905 - 1942) still in school have invented a nickname - harms, which varied with remarkable ingenuity, sometimes even in the caption under one manuscript: harms, Harms, Charms, Charms, Shards, harms-Dandan, etc. the Thing that harms believed that the constant name brings misfortune, and took a new name as if trying to get away from him. However, it is the alias of "harms" with its duality (from the French "charme" - "charm, charm" and English "harm" is harm") most accurately reflects the nature of the relationship of the writer to life and creativity.
Daniel Usachev was born 17 (30) December 1905 in St. Petersburg, in the family of Ivan Usacheva, a former naval officer, a revolutionary member of the " Narodnaya linked to Sakhalin and took there religious philosophy. Father Kharms was familiar with Chekhov, Tolstoy and Voloshin.
Daniel studied at elevated Petersburg German school. In 1924 he entered the Leningrad electrotechnical school, but was soon forced him to leave. In 1925 began writing.
In 1925 Usachev met with poetic and philosophical circle of Chinari. He quickly became notorious in the circles of the writers of the avant-garde under his invented in 17 years the nickname "harms". In the all-Russian Union of poets Kharms adopted in March 1926, based on the poetic compositions, two of which ("accident on the railroad" and "Verse Peter askina - Communist") has been printed in limited collections of the Union.
For early Kharms was typical "zaum", he joined the "Order of zaum DSO", headed by Alexander TuranAlem. Since 1926 harms actively tried to organize the forces of leftist writers and artists of Leningrad, creating a short-lived organization "Radix", "Left flank". In 1927 S. Marshak attracted harms to work in children's literature. So harms received his first publication and the first money from them. Income from publications remained almost the only source of money throughout the life of Kharms. He never worked for money when they were not (and has been all his life), he lent. Sometimes gave in time, sometimes not given at all.
In February, the first issue of the children's magazine "the Hedgehog", which were first published children's books Kharms "Ivan Ivanych Samovar" and "Naughty tube". Since 1928 harms writes for children's magazine "Siskin". Surprisingly, with a relatively small number of children's poems ("Ivan Ivanych Samovar", "Liar", "Game", "Million", "dad shot me a ferret", "came out Of the house man", "What was that?", "Tiger on the street"...) he created his country in poetry for children and became a classic.
At the same time harms became one of the founders of the avant-garde poetry and art group "the Association of real art" (the OBERIU). Later in Soviet journalism works the OBERIU were declared "poetry class enemy", and in 1932 the activities of the OBERIU in the former part has stopped.
In December 1931 Kharms was arrested along with a number of other oberiutov accused of anti-Soviet activities and sentenced on March 21, 1932, by the Collegium of the OGPU to three years in prison camps. But two months later the sentence was commuted to deportation, and the poet went to Kursk.
He arrived on July 13, 1932. "The city in which I lived at that time, he wrote about the Kursk, I didn't like. He stood on the mountain, and were opening everywhere postcard views. I was so disgusted that I even had the pleasure of sitting at home. Yes, actually, except mail, market and store, me and walk-it was nowhere... there Were days when I ate nothing. Then I tried to create a happy mood. Lay down on the bed and started to smile. I smiled up to 20 minutes of infections, but then the smile turned into a yawn...".
Harms stayed in Kursk until the beginning of November, in the 10 days he returned to Leningrad. He continued to communicate with like-minded people and wrote several books for children to earn a living. After the publication in 1937 in children magazine poems From the house came the man with stick and bag", which since then has disappeared", Kharms stopped typing. This put his wife on the brink of starvation.
23 August 1941 Kharms was arrested for defeatist mood after a tip-off agent of the NKVD. In particular, Kharms was accused his words "If I give mobilization sheet, I will give a face to the commander, shoot me; but I will not put" and "the Soviet Union lost the war on the first day, Leningrad now or will be besieged, and we will die of starvation, or rabbat, leaving no stone unturned". To avoid execution, harms feigned madness. A military Tribunal has determined to contain Kharms in a psychiatric hospital. There Daniil Kharms died during the siege of Leningrad, in the most severe on the number of hungry deaths a month.
Daniil Kharms was rehabilitated in 1956, but for a long time officially his major works in the USSR was not published. Before perestroika, his work went hand in hand and in samizdat, and was published abroad with a large number of distortions and abbreviations.

"I wrote harms October 31, 1937, is only interested in "stuff"; only that which has no practical sense. I am interested in life in his ridiculous appearance. Heroism, pathos, courage, morality, hygiene, morality, emotion and passion hateful to my words and feelings.
But I completely understand and respect: admiration, inspiration and despair, passion and restraint, libertinism and virtue, sadness and sorrow, joy and laughter".

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