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Vyacheslav Ivanov

Vyacheslav Ivanovich Ivanov (1866-1949) was a Russian poet - symbolist, philosopher, translator, playwright, literary critic, doctor of philological Sciences, one of the inspirers of the "Silver age".
Vyacheslav Ivanov was born in the family of surveyor Ivan T. Ivanov (1816-1871). Having graduated from the First Moscow gymnasium, he continued his studies first at the historical-philological faculty of Moscow University (1884-1886, two courses), then at the University of Berlin (1886-1890), where, in addition to Philology, a lot of history under the leadership of Mommsen and philosophy. In 1896 Girshfeld and Mommsen took his dissertation, but an oral examination for the degree Ivanov was not passed. On the Outlook Ivanov mostly influenced Nietzsche, Vladimir Solovyov, the Slavophiles, German romanticism (NOVALIS, Friedrich Hölderlin).
Vyacheslav Ivanov traveled a lot - since 1891, traveled a considerable part of Europe (lived for some time in Athens, then in Geneva), visited Palestine, Egypt. Lived mainly in Italy and Russia (finally moved to Italy in 1924).
In 1894, Vyacheslav Ivanov met with Lydia Zinovieva-Aníbal, poet, and translator, five years later became the wife Ivanov. Then a close friend of the family Ivanova became M M Zamyatnin; she was of great help to the poet until his death in 1920.
Early sonnets Ivanov, describing the mountainous nature of Lombardy and of the Alps, created under the strong influence of poetry Catholic mysticism. First appearance in print Ivanov, the poet refers to 1898 (provided considerable assistance was a young poet Vladimir Soloviev, who Ivanov met in 1896). In 1903-1904 Ivanov met C. J. Brusov, K. D. by Balmont, Y. K. the Baltrushaitis, D. C. Merezhkovskii and H. N. Gippius, A. A. Block.
In 1905, the poet settled in St. Petersburg; his apartment in the house on the corner of Taurida and Tverskaya streets, in which the media was going to circle metasymbols, was one of the ideological centers of Russian symbolism, "creative laboratory" poets; literary "environments".
Ivanov saw the prototype of the "Cathedral" of communities. Ivanov worked in the magazines "Scales", "Golden fleece", "Works and days", "Apollo", "New Path", led by the publishing house "Ora"; participated in the activities of the St. Petersburg religious-philosophical society, were published in the almanac "Northern flowers", taught (1910-1911) the history of ancient Greek literature at the Higher women's courses. In 1906 he became friends with S. M. Gorodetsky; this friendship gave Ivanov new themes, and in 1907 he published a collection of "Eros" (Ed. "Ora", St. Petersburg).
Big blow for the poet was the sudden death of his wife in 1907. After that, the poet deeply plunged in theosophy and mysticism. In 1910, married his stepdaughter Faith Varsalone, daughter Zinovieva-Aníbal; from this marriage was born a son Dmitry (1912-2003).
In 1907-1908 the years after Ivanov supported the theory of "mystical anarchism" Georgy Chulkov - finally parted poet with the older symbolists (however, friendship with Brusov Ivanov remained until the death of the "pioneer" of Russian symbolism).
On his return from a long trip to Italy (1912-1913) Ivanov became friends with literary critic M. O. Gershenzon, philosopher C. N. Bulgakov, composer A. N. Scriabin.
Active cultural and educational activities Ivanov continued and after the October revolution; in 1921 to 1924 he lived in Baku, where he was a University Professor. In 1921 he defended his thesis on the cult of Dionysus.
The last decade was spent in Italy, where he was mainly engaged in the translation of works of ancient and medieval poets (Sappho, Aeschylus, Alkaios, Petrarch and others), only occasionally publishing new works (cycle "Roman sonnets", 1924; the poem "Man" (Publishing house "House of books", Paris, 1939). Ivanov lived in Italy alone, supporting communication only with some of the Russian immigrants (from senior - Merezhkovskii, younger - with I. N. Golenischev-Kutuzov).
In 1926, he converted to Catholicism. In the years 1926-1934 taught Russian language and literature at the College in Pavia, 1934-1943 years in the Oriental Institute of the Vatican. In 1948, by order of the Vatican wrote the introduction and notes to the Psalter. The result of literary creativity Ivanov was the collection of poems "evening Light", published posthumously in Oxford in 1962.
In the last years of his life led a secluded life, meeting with a few people close to him, among which was a couple Merezhkovsky. Ivanov was buried at the Protestant cemetery in Rome, near the artist Karl Bryullov.

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