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GABDULLA TUKAY

Gabdulla Tukay

Gabdulla according to modern calendar Tukaev (1886-1913) - an outstanding Tatar national poet, literary critic, essayist and translator.
Gabdulla Tukay was born April 26, 1886 in the village of Kushluk. Father - Muhamadsharif Muhametgalimov, native village of Coslovich Kazan uezd, Kazan province. Grandfather Muhametgalin was a Mullah. Mother - Mamuda, whose father Zinnatulla the son of Sealbasher as Garif Mulla studied in Kashirskom madrasah. Zinnatulla served as the muezzin Koslowe, and later at the request of the inhabitants of the village Uchile went to him Mullah.
When Gabdulla was four and a half months, he had lost his father, and at the age of three years was the orphan. After a short stay in the family of grandparents Sinfully, he was in Kazan, in the family childless resident Novo-Tatar Sloboda on behalf of Muhammedali, where he spent about 2 years. His adoptive parents were ill and had to return the Gabdulla in Uchile. In 1892-1895 years of his life passed in a peasant family of Sagdi in the kiirlai village, near Kushluk. Here Gabdulla began to join the labour of peasant life, felt her joy and bitterness, began to study and, as he later wrote in his memoirs, kerlai opened his eyes to life.
Later childhood Gabdulla continued in the city of Uralsk. Being taken back into the family of a merchant of Galiaskar Usmanov, where he was master of his aunt on his father, he studied in madrassas progressive-minded family patrons Tukhvatullin, while visiting a Russian class and showing high talent in school. The first literary experiments Tukai partially embedded in the manuscript journal "al-GASR al-Jadid" ("New century") in 1904. During this period he translated into Tatar's fables and submitted them for publication. Was fascinated by the poetry of Pushkin and Lermontov. His first great poetic creation in pure Tatar language was the translation of the poem Koltsov "why are you sleeping, little man?", published in 1905 under the title "Dream guy".
After the revolution of 1905 in Uralsk, the first Tatar Newspapers and magazines "Picker" (Thought), "al-GASR al-Jadid (New century), "Uklar" (Arrows). Tukay worked in them and has performed with numerous poems and articles on the topics raised by the revolution. He participated in the previous wave city demonstrations.
In early 1907 Tukai left madrasah "Mutage" (Tukhvatullin). He began his "free life". Titleonly coup 1907 meant a decisive offensive reactions to democracy. Military response to it was Tukai the poem "do Not go!", bright lines which came the voice of the fighter, who called to stand for the honor of the Motherland and democracy. Such poems Tukai as "Shurale", "a Pair of horses", "Native land", written in conjunction with the "Not going!", were devoted to the Motherland. In the autumn of 1907 Tukai arrives (in fact, returns) in Kazan, in order to devote his efforts to the work. Here he quickly entered the literary circles and moving closer to young people, grouped around the newspaper "al-Islah" ("Reform") - Fatih Amirhan and other All their creativity Tukai in this period devotes satirical comic magazines "Yashen" ("Lightning"), Yalt-ult" ("lightning").
By 1908 creativity Tukai arose a series of wonderful poetry and essays and journalistic pieces. The poem "to the memory of Hussain" and "Tatar youth" (1912) is permeated by a sense of historical optimism. Most of his poems and travel essays, published in 1911-1912, written under the impression of his visit to the villages of Ordering his homeland. They captured the reality, evaluated from the position of defender of the people.
Despite a sharp deterioration in health, in 1911-1912 he made the trip, had a lot to him. In early may 1911 Tukai the steamer arrived in Astrakhan, on the way getting acquainted with the life of the Volga region ("Dacha", the essay "a Little trip"). Here Tukai remained in visiting his friend the poet sagita Ramava. In Astrakhan, he met with Azerbaijani public figure and writer Nariman Narimanov, exiled there for revolutionary activity in the native land. In the spring of 1912 Tukai decided on a greater journey along the route Kazan - Ufa - St. Petersburg. In Ufa, he met M. Gafuri, in St. Petersburg - Melanura Vehiculum, later a prominent revolutionary.
Having lived in St. Petersburg 13 days, 6 (19) may, Tukay left the capital and went in Troitsk, and then into the Kazakh steppe - drink koumiss, hoping to improve their health. In Kazan returned in early August. In the capital Tukai worked in the suffocating atmosphere of typography and, despite poor health, he continued to write.
2 (15) April 1913 Gabdulla Tukai was not. He died in the Prime of his talent. "Tatars in the face Tukaev lost the greatest national poet," wrote Kazan Russian-language newspaper. Takes tradition became one of the decisive ideological and aesthetic factors and life-giving sources for the further development of Tatar literature under the banner of realism and nationalities.
Gabdulla Tukay was buried in the Tatar cemetery Novo Tatar (Kazan).

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